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Marijuana is a schedule I controlled substance under Federal law. Placing the marijuana in the mail and sending it to your friend in California could subject you, if you are caught to a Federal drug trafficking charge.
Is this a hypothetical or was the contraband discovered and confiscated before it got to your friend in California?
Generally what would happen is that some drug sniffing dog in a postal facility picks up the scent and then a sting is set up where the carrier who delivers the package is actually an undercover officer. They bust the receiver for possession and then go after the seller. That didn't happen.
I can't guarantee that you are 100% free from criminal liability. What I can say is that the government wouldn't generally let the package go through if they were aware of its contents, because as you pointed out, the evidence would be and was destroyed. It's still possible, however, though unlikely, that they did spot the shipment and decided to get a warrant and establish a long-term surveillance operation of your activities instead.
With that in mind, what you did was very unwise and is a Federal offense. Whether you use the mail or some other carrier, you are putting a controlled substance into the stream of US commerce and risking Federal trafficking charges. I've answered many questions here from people whose packages were intercepted by drug sniffing dogs and represented my share of clients who were arrested during a parcel delivery sting under these circumstances.
So be careful and have a happy new year.
As what you purchased and sent was received without incident and no longer exists, there would be no liability with regard to that transaction.