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If you default on the loan then the next step they take is to file a lawsuit against you for the deficiency. It is only after the lawsuit is filed and a judgment is entered, months down the road, that they can begin trying to collect on that judgment.
Collection can include the garnishing of wages, levying/seizing bank accounts and other property, etc. You can avoid that by filing a bankruptcy if you choose to go that path.
Generally, it is six months, minimum, before they can get a judgment and being to pursue collections unless you default and don't answer or contest the lawsuit.