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The short answer is that, yes, you can ask the judge to move the trial date because of health complications with the health of one of the parties involved.
That said, there is no way to force the judge to grant your motion. It would be entirely in his discretion.
Clearly, the lifespan of the defendant can impact that amount of the award (assuming the shortened lifespan was not due to the defendant's actions). So, havinga doctor attest that his lifespan is short, it could impact damages.
There isn't really a way to have a doctor attest to that without running that risk.
You, with his POA, can make that request. All you (or his lawyer, if he has one) need to do is file the motion with the doctor's affidavit attached. There really isn't more to it than that.
The judge could schedule it for a hearing, in which case you might have to bring the doctor to testify, which will cost money.
Either way you get it across that his lifespan is somewhat shortened (through you or a physician), it has the potential to impact his damages.
In some ways, it puts you in a difficult situation. You can try to speed the trial up, but you run the risk of impacting damages.
That would depend on several factors, including how long you think he has to live, how long it will take to get it to trial, and the likelyhood of getting the motion granted. I can't tell you exactly how to file you motion, since I don't have all that information, but I can just tell you your options. I am not aware of any case studies on this subject.
One thing to keep in mind is that the lighter you go on selling his illness, the less likely it will be to impact his damages, but the less likely you will be to get the motion granted. It is just a judment call someone with more info regarding his medical condition would have to make.
This is not thesort of thing that would benefit you to research. The judge has almost complete discretion in this matter, so showing him caselaw going o do much for you. Also doing research on a legal database can be expensive.