Thank you for your question. I should start by saying that because the nuances of every are different, this information should not be construed as complete or advice without consulting in person with counsel. The question is basically what the consequences are of a passport lien, and the answer is that it prohibits the passport holder from leaving the country. Naturally, a lien on a U.S. passport will not prohibit the citizen from re-entering the U.S., but it will prohibit them from leaving the U.S. even if it is to return to the country from which they left.
In that regard, you could say that they are "stuck".
A passport lien does not automatically mean that the holder will be arrested. You can have a lien put on your passport for numerous reasons (most commonly, due to overdue child support). However, the passport holder will not be arrested unless there is a warrant out for their arrest--that is completely separate and apart from a passport lien.
It would be wrong and unlikely for any given person to expect an arrest simply because they have a lien on their passport. Naturally, it's possible to have both a passport lien and a warrant out for your arrest, but those things don't have to go together.
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