You are right to be suspicious, because scam artists often will call people using information obtained from public databases, poses as debt collectors, and attempt to scare, berate, or badger the person into giving a credit card number of other personal information over the telephone. This practice is illegal.
The Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act prohibits debt collectors from contacting consumers without a meaningful disclosure of their identity. That means that they need to tell you who they are, where they're calling from, and that they're attempting to collect a debt. The Act also requires that they inform you of your right to request validation of the debt within 5 business days of the initial contact - they can't say "Pay us and we'll tell you." That's illegal. Once you request verification of a debt, they're not allowed to contact you at all, or continue attempting to collect, until they provide it.
When a debt collector violates the FDCPA, the consumer can sue for up to $1,000 per violation. You may benefit from sharing this information with them, letting them know that you're creating a log of their contacts, and that you intend to sue them for violation of the Act if they do not cease all contact with you immediately.
A legitimate debt collector will provide you with an address so that you can send the communications permitted under the FDCPA. If they refuse to do that, it's most likely a scam, and you can let them know that you're notifying the police (who can trace that number). If you can get an address, here are some sample letters that could help.
It's also a violation of the FDCPA to tell a person that they will go to jail for non-payment of a debt. If they try that, it is most likely a scam. The state isn't going to tell you that unless it's a bounced check issue, and the state doesn't call people about bounced checks. If they had a case, they would notify you by mail.
Looking at reports from others who have received calls from the same number, this is not a legitimate caller.
Do not give him any personal information, and do not send him any money. If invoking your rights under the FDCPA doesn't work, and threatening to call the police doesn't work, you may want to see if your telephone company can block calls from that number.
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