Thank you for the follow-up. I can appreciate the fact that you would like a bright-line of constitutionally-tested standards.
However, at this time, there is only one and it is that officers can ask at any time. The only time that you can constitutionally-refuse to answer is when your answer may result in you admitting to a crime.
Now, what can the consequences be when an officer asks for your name, and that answer won't result in you admitting to a crime? It depends. Nothing may happen. Or, you could be charged with violating a state or local law. If charged with such a crime, do you have the right to fight the charges and make law for the argument that you have a constitutional right of free speech to remain silent?
Yes, you have the right to make such a legal defense. The law right now is not certain.
You will be interested to know, however, that in January of this year, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear the case of Salinas v. Texas, No. 12-246. That case will address a major open question in the court’s Fifth Amendment jurisprudence: May the failure to answer a police officer’s questions before an arrest be used against a defendant at trial?
The Supreme Court has said the amendment’s protection against self-incrimination applies after arrest and at trial. But it has never decided, in the words of a 1980 decision, “whether or under what circumstances pre-arrest silence” in the face of questioning by law enforcement personnel is entitled to protection.
So, the best answer I can give you is to stay tuned to see how the U.S. Supreme Court will handle the Salinas case. It's scheduled for argument in April 2013.
You can bookmark this page to keep an eye on the case: http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/12-246.htm