I'd be happy to answer your question.
1. What is the difference between "Evidence" and an "Exhibit" in regard to the language of the rule cited above.
When something is ruled as evidence, that means it can be considered by the jury or judge and has been admitted as such by the court.
An exhibit is an actual piece of evidence that can be taken with the jury to the jury room when the case has gone to them to render a verdict
In the language of the rule you cite above, we are talking about a publication that has been used by an expert as a foundation for his expert opinion. When the publication has been accepted as evidence, it may be read into the record, but the document itself is not given to the jury as an exhibit.
How you do that is you either ask the witness to read the part of the document that has been accepted as evidence, or you stand up and offer it yourself by stating "your honor, we wish to offer into evidence a portion of the publication that has been accepted under the rules of evidence."
That being said, the rule you are citing, 712, is not about expert publications. Rule 712 states the following:
Division 6. Witnesses
Chapter 2. Oath and Confrontation
GO TO CALIFORNIA CODES ARCHIVE DIRECTORY
Cal Evid Code § 712 (2012)
§ 712. Blood sample affidavits
Notwithstanding Sections 711 and 1200, at the trial of a criminal action, evidence of the technique used in taking blood samples may be given by a registered nurse, licensed vocational nurse, or licensed clinical laboratory technologist or clinical laboratory bioanalyst, by means of an affidavit. The affidavit shall be admissible, provided the party offering the affidavit as evidence has served all other parties to the action, or their counsel, with a copy of the affidavit no less than 10 days prior to trial. Nothing in this section shall preclude any party or his counsel from objecting to the introduction of the affidavit at any time, and requiring the attendance of the affiant, or compelling attendance by subpoena
The rule you are citing is not part of the California Rules of Evidence. Rather it is part of the Federal Rule of Evidence 803, which states:
(18) Statements in Learned Treatises, Periodicals, or Pamphlets. A statement contained in a treatise, periodical, or pamphlet if:
(A) the statement is called to the attention of an expert witness on cross-examination or relied on by the expert on direct examination; and
(B) the publication is established as a reliable authority by the expert’s admission or testimony, by another expert’s testimony, or by judicial notice.
If admitted, the statement may be read into evidence but not received as an exhibit.
Are you in federal court
or state court? What is the purpose you are trying to read a documet into evidence and what is the document?