1. A judicial decision that establishes a rule for settling subsequent cases of a similar nature is a: (Points: 5) writ of certiorari
landmark decision. writ of mandamus
2. The power of the Supreme Court is strengthened by its ability to: (Points: 5)
issue advisory opinions when Congress is considering a new bill.
impeach federal judges who consistently ignore its rulings.
exercise wide discretion in choosing which cases to hear.
override any decision of a state court.
3. A writ of certiorari is: (Points: 5)
permission granted by a higher court allowing a losing party to bring its case before the court for a ruling.
the statement explaining the reasoning behind a Supreme Court decision.
the official transcript of Supreme Court proceedings.
an application for a waiver of court fees due to a person’s inability to afford to pay the fees.
4. A concurring opinion: (Points: 5)
explains the chief justice’s position on a case.
is delivered when a justice decides the same way on a case as the majority, but has a different reason for reaching that decision.
is delivered when the Court interprets a constitutional issue.
is delivered when at least two justices, but less than a majority, hold the same opinion in a case.
5. A written Supreme Court opinion that, in the absence of a majority opinion, represents the reasoning of most of the justices who side with the winning party is a: (Points: 5)
6. With regard to the lower courts, the Supreme Court’s most important function is: (Points: 5)
correcting technical errors they make in the cases they hear.
settling jurisdictional disputes among federal judges.
settling jurisdictional disputes between state and federal judges.
establishing legal precedents that will guide their decisions.
7. The U.S. courts of appeals: (Points: 5)
hear new evidence in appealed cases.
review trial court decisions.
are the highest courts to use juries.
decide for the Supreme Court the cases it will review.
8. Senatorial courtesy refers to the tradition whereby: (Points: 5)
nominees for federal judgeships are treated with respect during Senate confirmation hearings, even by senators who plan to vote against the nominee.
senators usually defer to the president’s choice of Supreme Court nominees.
senators are consulted on the nomination of lower court federal judgeships located in their state.
nominations for the federal courts
, once committee hearings are concluded, are scheduled for a vote ahead of other Senate business.
9. The facts of a case: (Points: 5)
are largely irrelevant, in that the judiciary has wide freedom with decisions.
affect which law or laws will apply to the case.
are important only if the case involves a statutory dispute.
are important only if the case involves a constitutional dispute.
10. Precedent, while not an absolute constraint on the courts, is needed to: (Points: 5)
maintain legal consistency over time, so the confusion and uncertainty about the law can be avoided.
preserve the courts as a majoritarian institution.
check the president in the area of public law.
balance the policy
-making authority of Congress.
11. The judiciary’s status as an independent branch of the national government rests on judicial review, which grants the judiciary the authority to: (Points: 5)
decide which laws apply to a particular case.
ignore public opinion when making decisions.
strike down certain sections of the Constitution
invalidate the actions of other institutions when judges believe they have acted unconstitutionally.
12. With regard to public opinion, the Supreme Court: (Points: 5)
ignores it completely in order to make decisions that are based on enduring values rather than the public’s passing whims.
remains uninformed about it because justices stay on the bench for life and never face the public scrutiny of an election.
attempts to stay close enough to public opinion so as to avoid a grave loss of public support.
attempts to follow it very closely in order to create public enthusiasm for its rulings.
13. According to the doctrine of judicial restraint, the judiciary should: (Points: 5)
defer to the decisions of elected officials.
deny most appeals for retrials.
deny individual rights when they conflict with the majority’s desires.
decline to make any decision that requires judges to give added meaning to the words of the Constitution.
14. The contention that the Constitution contains moral language that justifies the vigorous protection of individual rights by the judiciary is a view compatible with: (Points: 5)
15. As distinct from civil law, criminal law is law that defines a relationship: (Points: 5)
between individuals and government.
between citizens and non-citizens.
16. The laws of a case: (Points: 5)
constrain the judiciary because court decisions must be based on applicable laws.
reveal the relevant circumstances of the case, and are determined solely by trial courts.
are more important than the facts of a case, and supersede the facts when the two conflict.
apply only in the area of criminal cases and not also in the area of civil disputes.
17. The Supreme Court is most likely to grant a hearing when a case involves: (Points: 5)
an issue of state law as opposed to an issue of federal law.
an issue of private law as opposed to an issue of public law.
an issue that is being decided inconsistently by the lower courts.
the possibility that an innocent person has been wrongly convicted of a crime.
18. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in legal disputes involving: (Points: 5)
one state government against another state government.
free speech and the equal protection issues.
19. The lowest level of the federal court system is the: (Points: 5) circuit court
highest level of the state courts.
justice of the peace. district court
20. The structure of the lower federal court system is established by: (Points: 5)
the Supreme Court.
the Justice Department.