1. The Fourth Amendment protects Americans from: (Points: 5)
all unreasonable searches.
searches conducted only by federal officers.
searches conducted only by state officers.
2. Which constitutional amendment protects the individual against self-incrimination? (Points: 5)
3. The individual right that is considered to be the most fundamental to the maintenance of a democratic society is: (Points: 5)
the right to an attorney.
freedom of expression.
the right to a jury trial
protection against illegal searches and seizures.
4. Justice Holmes’ “clear and present danger” test holds that government can: (Points: 5)
restrict speech that threatens national security.
restrict any speech of an inflammatory nature.
engage in prior restraint of the press whenever national security is at issue.
restrict speech that is disrespectful to specific classes of citizens.
5. Which constitutional amendment has enabled the Supreme Court to protect the civil liberties
contained in the Bill of Rights
from being abridged by state and local officials? (Points: 5)
6. Government can lawfully prevent a political rally from taking place: (Points: 5)
under no circumstances; people have an unconditional right to express their views.
when the rally would cost money because of the need for police protection.
when the views of those holding the rally are unpopular.
when it can demonstrate clearly that a non-preventable evil will result if the rally is held.
7. Spoken words that are known to be false and harmful to a person’s reputation are an example of: (Points: 5)
8. Which of the following is correct with regard to obscenity and the law? (Points: 5)
Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.
Obscenity is never unlawful.
Child pornography is protected by the First Amendment.
Obscenity has been easy for courts to define with precision.
9. The establishment clause prohibits government from: (Points: 5)
establishing exceptions to the Bill of Rights.
favoring one religion over another or supporting religion over no religion.
interfering with freedom of assembly.
interfering with the right to bear arms.
10. The Supreme Court has reasoned that a right of privacy is provided by: (Points: 5)
the Civil Rights
Act of 1964.
the Ninth Amendment, which says that people’s rights are not limited to those enumerated in the Constitution
the Tenth Amendment, which reserves to the people and the states those powers not granted to the federal government.
a reasonable interpretation of other constitutional protections of individual rights.
11. The right to privacy was instrumental in which decision? (Points: 5)
Roe v. Wade
Mapp v. Ohio
Schenck v. United States
Miranda v. Arizona
12. Justice in the U.S. criminal justice system is defined primarily in terms of whether: (Points: 5)
those convicted are actually guilty.
those convicted have the opportunity for appeal.
those convicted are treated humanely while imprisoned.
the proper procedures for conviction have been followed.
13. The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling (1954) held that racial segregation in schools violated the: (Points: 5)
due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Civil Rights Act.
14. The movement for women’s rights was initially aligned with: (Points: 5)
the abolition movement.
the labor movement.
the modern civil rights movement.
15. Women in America obtained the right to vote in national elections in: (Points: 5)
16. In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to: (Points: 5)
give government the benefit of the doubt.
assess whether a law had the support of a two-thirds majority of legislators at the time of passage.
determine whether a law is working well and, if so, to allow it to remain in effect.
prohibit any law that results in the unequal treatment of Americans.
17. Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the: (Points: 5)
reasonable basis test.
strict scrutiny test.
precedent basis test.
clear and present danger test.
18. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was aimed chiefly at eliminating discrimination: (Points: 5)
by governments in their conduct of elections (e.g., registration, placement of polling booths).
by private individuals in their social relations—bigoted statements and other acts of prejudice are unlawful under most circumstances.
by governments in their job practices and provision of services (e.g, schools, roads).
by private individuals in their employment practices and in their operation of public accommodations (e.g., hotels, restaurants).
19. De jure discrimination and de facto
discrimination are two ways in which some Americans are less equal than others. Examples of public policies
designed to address each of these forms of discrimination are: (Points: 5)
the Brown decision (de jure) and affirmative action
affirmative action (de jure) and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de facto).
the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de jure) and the Brown decision (de facto).
the Supreme Court’s busing decisions (de jure) and affirmative action decisions (de facto).
20. An example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is: (Points: 5)
the Equal Rights Amendment.
busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.
the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.
the Fourteenth Amendment.