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Thank you for your question.
If your employer has breached the employment contract, you can most likely back out without having to pay back the signing bonus. There should be a provision in the contract itself which provides for remedies in the event of the employer's breach. You should read that section carefully to determine your rights under the contract.
If the employer truly breached the contract, you would most likely be entitled to everything you would have been entitled to had your employer not breached. This includes wages, signing bonus, medical insurance, etc. However, you must "mitigate" any damages you receive by attempting to find other work which would lessen your lost wages and other damages.
I truly recommend having an employment attorney in your area review the contract before you back out of the employment, because you don't want to get stuck being the breaching party.
Good luck to you.