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The nurse can not break that confidentiality due to HIPPA privacy laws; there is no law stating that a minor can not give consent in treatment with regards XXXXX XXXXX type of medical issue. If she desires to have an abortion then she would have to get parental or court consent (read HERE) unless it was a life or death situation and there was no time to obtain consent. The teacher is not obligated either way and is simply under a moral obligation to protect the confidentiality of the student or tell the parents; it is their choice (unless they are acting as a counselor and the student has a reasonable right to believe the communication is privileged). Also, if the teacher or nurse believe that the child's condition is one brought on by a criminal or abusive act such as rape, incest, or other illegal activity; then they could be protected and even forced to report it to authorities but not to the parents. Only in the situation that the child is in a state run correctional facility may physician, dentist, or psychologist tell the parents of the condition without the consent of the child.
Read HERE under Chapter 32.