There is no time limit on the arraignment. At each step of the process the police and prosecutor are generally careful to preserve their abiltiy to bring charges and prosecute later on. Especially in marginal cases where they may not have sufficient evidence.
You are released, but the arraingment comes only after it is determined that there is a crime. This requires evidence. The fact that you had an arraignment after the arrest would tell me that the prosecution or at least the arresting officer, felt that there was sufficient evidence that a charge was filed.
The minimum statute of limitations in California for any crime is one year, with some being longer. So, Depending on the misdemeanor or other charge, as long as you were arrained after filing of charges within one year, they are within their rights.
This is why charges are not always filed right away. Some cases for some activities may linger for years before charges are filed.
So Arraignment, depending on the crime, comes after a charge is filed, not after release from Jail.
Some crimes, if serioius enough and evidence is strong, may result in being held in jail for longer periods of time. Unless you have an attorney to represent you, there are situations, where a person can be held for as long as 6 months or even a year, pending charges and arraignment.
1. If charges are filed, they can hold you until you are arraigned. If charges are not filed, you are generally released within 72 hours, but it can be longer. An attorney can get you released within 24 hours.
2. misdeamenor cases and other low level felony's the court may release you before arraignment. In your case they released you before arraingment.
3. During an arraignment, you had to make a plea. ANd court dates are set. So, as long as they have the evidence, there is no requirement to drop the charges as long as the prosecution wants to pursue the case, according to the docet schedule. Once you have been arrained, the statute of limitations no longer applies. The trial date may proceed as scheduled, or there can be delays, continuances, requested of the prosecution or the defence until your day in court arrives.
generally, there is a 90 day period in which the charges can be brought (not true of all crimes), and 120 days after that in which the prosecution has to decide if they will prosecute.