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Can a landlord demand that I vacate in 10 minutes without any notice or warning ?
No, absolutely not. You can simply refuse and if the landlord tried to force you out, you can call the police and they will come and inform the landlord that they can't evict you without a judgment of eviction from the court.
With that said, if the landlord told you to leave and you did, then that is considered "voluntary" on your part. But you had no legal duty to do so and could have refused and stayed. You had the right to refuse, but it is up to you to exercise your rights to force the landlord to pursue a formal eviction if they want you out and have legal grounds to evict.
Unfortunately, the old saying "ignorance of the law is not an excuse" kind of comes into play here because basically the landlord bluffed you into agreeing to move out rather than standing your ground and refusing to move.
You could try to sue for an illegal eviction, but the judge may very well just ask you why you agreed to move out and just didn't tell the landlord "no". Saying that you didn't realize that you could refuse wouldn't override your actions in moving out on your own. If the landlord had thrown out out property and locked you out, that would be completely different.
And the police tend to be pretty ignorant about the actual law outside writing criminal citations..
But there is nothing that would prevent you from trying to sue the landlord in small claims court, I just wouldn't get my hopes up.