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I am an attorney with 30 years of experience; I hope to provide you information that will help you in resolving your question.
Unfortunately most leases will have a provision that requires all tenants to be responsible for the rent. This is called Joint and Several Liability. But you have a reasonable argument that since you were not provided the lease you were not put on proper notice and therefore you did not knowingly agree to be responsible for the other tenants. I can not guarnatee that this argument will work with the judge, but it is something to raise in court. You can also raise that the landlord has not joined the other tenants and that they are necessary defendants.
If you have received a Summons and Complaint it is important that you respond to it in writing, denying that you owe the rent and also raising a "Counterclaim" that the landlord failed to return your security deposit. You need to send this back to the Court and to the Landlord.
You also must appear in Court to defend against the Complaint or a "Default Judgment" can be taken against you.
These hearings are held before Magistrates in Small Claims Court. They are fairly informal and Attorneys are usually not present. The judge will as the Landlord to go fisrt to prove his case.
Then the Judge will ask you to tell your side of the story.
After that the Judge will make his decision. If you lose you can appeal to the next level court. BUT you will have to pay the filing fees to do so. The Clerk of the COurt should have the form you need to appeal if it comes to that.
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Please note: Information is educational and not given as legal advice. Only your local attorney can give legal advice. I can't establish or accept an attorney-client relationship with you. All posts are available for public viewing.