The citizenship laws are very complex and I did further research.
Different laws applied to adopted children prior to 1978.
The way I read the law you did not derive U.S. citizenship because adopted children were not eligible under the laws that apply to that time period - you were born in 1973. However, if you meet the eligibility requirements for naturalization, you may apply for U.S. citizenship.
The issue is not at all related to your father having physical presence in the US because any time spent in the military is considered to satisfy the physical presence requirement. He lived in the US until joining the military.
The issue is that laws in effect in 1973 - your birth year - did not give adopted children the same right to deriving citizenship through their adoptive US citizen parent.
That changed somewhat in 1978, again 1983 and again in 2000. There is a very long legislative history for citizenship. I have spent over an hour researching this for you. I cannot find a loophole.
So you cannot get a Certificate of Citizenship by filing an N-600.
You may naturalize under the normal procedure to apply for naturalization by filing form N-400.
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