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I am sorry to hear about this situation.
Yes, overstaying by 180+ days can mean a 3 year ban, and overstaying by a year can mean a 10 year ban. However, these bans are statutory - they apply automatically. You still can be denied entry at the discretion of USCIS/ICE/CBP even if you are no longer subject to the ban.
If you have formal residence in Canada, this may help, but you still have to overcome the presumption that you will overstay again. This would mean showing ties to the community:
-a bank account
-letters of your character from others, and/or
-lease/real estate owned in Canada
The more you can show from the above, the better.
Assuming you simply want to come to visit, you can apply for a B2 (visitor) visa.
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