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ANSWER: The fastest way to get her here if you already are married is not very fast at all. It actually takes around 9 months for her to come, as the spouse of a US citizen.
Once you are married, you need to file form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative. It will be processed in the US in about 5 months. Once it has processed, it goes to the National Visa Center for additional processing. You will be asked to file form I-864, Affidavit of Support, and she will be instructed to file an online immigrant visa application.
Once she has done so, the case is forwarded to the US consulate or embassy closest to where she live. She will undergo a medical examination as well as an interview. If all goes well with those, then she is issued the visa and travel to the US. Upon entering with the CR-1 immigrant visa, she is resident of the US and will get her green card in 4 to 6 weeks.
Now you might hear something about the K3 spousal visa. That was created at a time when the I-130 was taking a very long time to process. It allowed her to come to the US in less time, to await the processing of the I-130. But not the I-130 is taking less time to process than the K3 spousal visa, making the K3 obsolete. However I always encourage US citizen spouses to file the petition for the K3, in case there are delays in the I-130. There is no USCIS fee attached, so there is no real harm. And if the K3 processing is finished before the I-130 is process, she comes sooner and finishes the green card process here, instead of abroad.
Here is everything you need to know about the marriage based immigrant visa process: https://travel.state.gov/content/visas/en/immigrate/family/immediate-relative.html
Here is everything you need to know about the K3 visa, if you want a safety net in case the I-130 takes too long: https://travel.state.gov/content/visas/en/immigrate/family/spouse-citizen.html
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