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Here is the official link as to what the U.S. Citizen has to do:
Essentially the U.S. Citizen would go to the U.S. Embassy and apply for an Affidavit in Lieu of a Certificate of Legal Capacity to Contract Marriage".
As to the requirements for the visa for the new spouse to come to the U.S., that's more complicated and takes time. There are two options:
1) The K-3 spouse visa takes 6 to 9 months, they must be married. The I-129F will cost $340 and $350 for the visa processing fee. Then after she enters the U.S., she must still file the I-485 for $1070 and wait for the marriage interview about 5 to 7 months later.
2) The CR-1 visa (or IR-1 if the marriage is more than 2 years old) takes about 1 year or so. They must be married. The fees are $420 for the I-130, $330 for the visa processing fee, $88 for an Affidavit of Support fee. But once she enters the U.S., she enters as a Resident and she does not have to file (or pay for) an I-485 nor does she have to attend an additional interview. She just gets her green card in the mail a few weeks later.
So the K-3 is faster but generally more expensive. The CR-1 (and IR-1) are slower, but generally cheaper. And no, there is no middle-visa that she can use to enter the U.S. while that process is pending. She will most likely have to wait outside.
Here is a link to both:
and another link:
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