Ok. Anyone that is a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) and is outside of the U.S. for 180 days or more within any 12 month period (not necessarily calendar year) creates a rebuttable presumption of abandonment of residency. That presumption can be rebutted by evidence to the contrary such as filing U.S. taxes, maintaining a home in the U.S. and paying that mortgage or rent, maintaining a U.S. drivers license, U.S. bank accounts with significant movement, etc.
Someone that has been outside of the U.S. for more than 1 year without first having an approved re-entry permit has abandoned their residency and only in very few exceptions (such as serious illness) can they get it back.
Here is an official link:
So basically, you need to spend more time in the U.S. than outside of the U.S. If that will not be possible, at least at the beginning, once you have U.S. Lawful Permanent Residency, you can apply for a Re-Entry Permit on form I-131. This will allow you to be outside of the U.S. for up to 2 years. You can use it for multiple trips. If you need more time, you come back before the 2 years ends and then you can apply for one more Re-Entry Permit for 2 more years. If you still need more time, you can apply again, but after 4 years, they get harder and harder to get and often only grant them for one year at a time. At some point you will need to start living in the U.S. and spending more than 180 days per 12 months inside.
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