Ok. The problem is that if he leaves the U.S. without doing the correct process, he will not be able to come back using an F-1 student visa. Why? Because for the F-1 student status, he has to show and prove non-immigrant intent. He cannot do that if he has a process pending through you. So you should do the court marriage and file the proper paperwork which is the following forms: I-130 (Petition for family member), I-485
(application for Lawful Permanent Residency), I-765 (Application for work permit), I-131 (Application for Advance Parole), G-325a (Biographic data - one for each of you), I-693 (Medical exam that a certified doctor must fill), and I-864 (Affidavit of support).
You will need to file each form with supporting evidence and appropriate filing fees. You can find these forms at www.uscis.gov/forms
The supporting evidence that you would file would be birth certificates, marriage certificate, divorce certificates if either of you have been married previously, proof of your U.S. Lawful Permanent Residency status, proof of your spouse's legal entry into the U.S., and financial documents to prove your income over the last year at least.
In about 3 to 5 months after filing, he should get a work permit and travel permit. About 5 to 7 months after filing you should get a marriage interview. If all goes well, a few weeks later he should get a Residency status (green card).
He must NOT leave the U.S. until the Advance Parole (the permission to travel) is approved. If he leaves before that, he would abandon his process and he would be stuck outside waiting for a year or so. He MIGHT be able to get an Advanced Parole approval before 3 months, but he has to show very good reason as to why it should be expedited. I don't think if you filed now he would have it by November, but you can try.
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