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1) Yes, but if you do not qualify for 245(i), you would have to leave the U.S. to use the petition and if you left the U.S., you would not be able to come back for 10 years without a very hard to get waiver. To qualify for 245(i), you would have to have had an I-130, I-140 or Labor Certification filed for you or under which you were listed on or before April 30, 2001. If you did not, you cannot qualify.
2) There really is no waiting period that you can hold USCIS up to. It generally takes 6 months or more to process the I-130. I generally say 5 to 7 months or so.
And as I said before, your sister can request you, but there are problems with that process. Your parents could have also requested you but you have the same problem because you will be over 21 by the time they become U.S. Citizens. They cannot request you to stay as Residents, unfortunately. You would have to be in legal status (not DACA) for a Resident parent to request you under or over 21. The only time you can be illegal and requested would be by a parent if you are under 21 or by a U.S. Citizen spouse and if a spouse does it, then you can be over 21. I am truly sorry.
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