Well, unfortunately, you abandoned your green card a long time ago and you do not get any special points or benefits because you had one before. You cannot request to renew it or reinstate it. Your U.S. Citizen father can apply for you to get a NEW one or your U.S. Citizen brother or sister can petition for you to get a NEW one, but you basically would have to go to the back of the line and wait for a new one and through your father it will take about 7 years or so, more if you are married, and through your brother or sister, it will take about 11 years or so. As I said, it is a waiting line of people that have applied before you and nothing in the law allows for you to jump ahead of anyone else, not even in an emergency and not even because you had a green card before. I am truly sorry.
If you want to extend your time in the U.S., you can file an I-539 which can be found here:
You would have to explain the following:
1) How much time do you need?
2) Why do you need you so much time?
3) Why you couldn't do what you needed to do during the first 6 months that you had?
4) How will you be supporting yourself for this additional time since you are not allowed to work?
5) What STRONG ties do you have to your home country to ensure that you will go back?
6) What preparations have you made to go back?
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