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There are 2 probable causes.
1. The oil pump lost its prime when the tank ran dry and their is air in the pump that needs to be bled out by pressing the air bleed button on the pump body (build into the burner assembly).
2. There was a lot of sludge on the bottom of the tank that got sucked into the primary oil filter, or the filter screen built into the oil pump inlet.
If you can get the brand and model number of the oil burner itself I can pull the manual for you with instructions on how to do that work. (brand will most likely be Beckett)
Thanks, that is a really old burner.
If you can take 4 or 5 pictures of it, well lit and well focused from the oil line inlet end of the pump, about 2 feet away from the camera. looking at the front, end and from the boiler side (back side of the pump I might be able so point out the air vent and screen locations.
Include a few shots from 10 feet away so that I can get perspective on what you have.
You can use the paper clip icon at the right end of the tool bar above or the '+attach files' link to the right of your send button to attach the pictures. good lighting will be important, most of those pump parts are black and the air bleed buttons are about 3/16" in diameter, difficult to see in dim light.
If I miss you tonight I will pick up your response in the morning.