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Psy 200 Exam 2 Review Sheet (3rd edition) Chapter 4:

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Psy 200 Exam 2 Review Sheet (3rd edition)
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
• a summary of where transduction occurs for each sense.(vision, audition, touch, and taste and smell)Vision
• We “see” light waves. What are the three properties of light waves and what do they determine?
• What are the differences between rods and cones? How does transduction occur- i.e. how does the light wave become a neural impulse? Why do we have a blind spot?
• There are three types of cones- what color wavelengths of light do they respond to? How do we perceive more than three colors? What is a color afterimage and why do they occur?
• What are feature detectors?
• Whose idea is that we tend to perceive things as organized wholes (Gestalt)? Be familiar with the perceptual grouping rules- simplicity, closure, continuity, similarity, proximity, and common fate. What is figure- ground?
• What are monocular depth cues? What is relative size? Linear perspective? Texture gradient? Interposition? Relative height?
• What is binocular disparity?
• What is change blindness? What is inattentional blindness?
Hearing
• We “hear” sound waves. What are the three properties of sound waves and what do they determine?
• Be familiar with the parts of the ear and their functions: pinna, auditory canal, eardrum, ossicles, cochlea, basiliar membrane. How are sound waves converted to a neural impulse (i.e. how does transduction occur)?
• Be able to explain each the two mechanisms for how we perceive pitch (place code and temporal code). Which works well for low frequencies? For high frequencies?
• How do we locate sounds?Other senses
• What is haptic perception? How do we sense touch? What are the two types of pain receptors? What is gate control theory? How can it explain why pain can be perceived as worse or better?
• What is the vestibular system? How is it linked to motion sickness?
• Smell- what stimuli are detected? How? What are olfactory neurons? How do we experience 1000 different odors with only 350 ORNs? Why is smell linked to emotion and memory?
• Taste- what are taste buds? What are the five main types of taste receptors?Chapter 7: Learning
What is learning?Classical conditioning (CC)
• What is classical conditioning? Be familiar with the US, CS, UR, and CR. Given an example you should be able to identify these stimuli. You should also be very familiar with Pavlov’s experiment (Figure 7.2) and the Little Albert study.
• What is acquisition? What is extinction? How does extinction occur in CC? What is spontaneous recovery? What is generalization? Discrimination?
• The Rescorla- Wagner predicts that classical conditioning would be easier when the CS was what? What is biological preparedness? How did Garcia and others (1966) show that things that are evolutionarily adaptive might be more easily conditioned?Operant conditioning (OC)
• What is operant conditioning? How does it differ from classical conditioning (i.e. which looks at reactive behaviors? Active behaviors?) Which pairs a response with a consequence? Which pairs two stimuli?)
• What is the law of effect? Which researchers are associated with this approach?
• What is operant behavior? What is a reinforce? A punisher? What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement? What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
• How does discrimination occur in operant conditioning? How does extinction occur in operant conditioning?
• Be familiar with the different schedules of reinforcement: fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, and variable ratio. What is continuous reinforcement (hint- it is a special type of FR schedule)? What is intermittent reinforcement? You should be able to identify examples as either fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, variable interval). Gambling tends to operate under which type of schedule? What schedule of reinforcement leads to the highest rate of responding? What is the intermittent reinforcement effect?
• What is shaping and how can it be used to teach a new behavior?
• What is latent learning? What is a cognitive map? Be familiar with the studies by Tolman and Honzik (1930) and how they challenged the notion that there was not a cognitive component to learning. What are the brain’s pleasure centers? How did the Brelands find that operant conditioning is constrained by evolution?Observational Learning
• What is observational learning?
• Be familiar with Bandura’s Bobo doll studies. How does seeing the model be punished or rewarded influence the amount of modeling that occurs?
• What are mirror neurons?
• What is implicit learning? Be able to give an example. What is habituation?Learning in the Classroom
• What are the best techniques for studying? The worse? See Table 7.2
Submitted: 5 months ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  F. Naz replied 5 months ago.

Hello

Please mention the deadline as well as can you cite me in your exam?

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
Sat. Morning. 11am eastern time.
Expert:  F. Naz replied 5 months ago.

Thanks for the reply but you did no answer my second question

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
I don't know exactly your question. but introducing psychology 3rd edition in textbook.
Expert:  F. Naz replied 5 months ago.

I mean that you have to cite me in your paper so it will explain that you have taken help from me to complete your paper, thanks. Can you cite me?

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
Expert:  F. Naz replied 5 months ago.

Okay so please mention the word count for your assignment as well as kindly let me know that how you will cite me in your assignment so I can have some understanding, thanks.

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