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1) A 2,000-bit message is used to generate a 256-bit hash.

Customer Question

1) A 2,000-bit message is used to generate a 256-bit hash. One the average, how many other messages could be expected to generate the same hash value? What does this tell us about the length of a hash as compared to the length of the message?

2) Using the English alphabet (i.e., mod 26 arithmetic) let plaintext = {p1, p2,… , pn} and corresponding ciphertext = {c1, c2,… , cn}. Suppose the encryption function is ci = pi + 5 (mod 26). If you receive the ciphertext message RNQJDHDWZX, decrypt to recover the plaintext. What is the decryption function, and the recovered plaintext? What type of cipher is this? What are some weaknesses of this cipher?

3. Substantiate or refute the following statement: The cryptographic basis of the Enigma machine is the use of a trapdoor function.

4. Consider the following plaintext message: THE BOILING POINT OF WATER IS 212 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. a. If this message is sent unencrypted and successfully received, what is its entropy? b. If this message is encrypted with DES using a random 56-bit key, what is the encrypted message’s entropy? c. If this message is encrypted with 3DES (using an optimal set of keys) what is the encrypted message’s entropy?

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Customer:replied 3 years ago.

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P.S. The questions are on IT Cryptography and not in Business Systems.

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