1. B. social domination of women by men.
2. D. X chromosome.
3. B. normative
4. B. Hirschi's social bond or control theory.
5. D. conventional and unconventional realities.
6. A. oligarchy
7. C. The smallest social group is the dyad.
8. C. control.
9. B. ethnomethodology.
10. D. Women managers aren't more concerned than men with maintaining their "image."
11. C. facial expression.
12. D. Patterns of behavior indicating relative social power.
13. B. 30
14. B. Violent crime rates are much higher in the United States than they are in Europe.
15. B. encourages social change.
16. D. capitalist
17. A. biological models that embrace the medicalization of deviance.
18. B. behavior and emotions.
19. A. rationality
20. A. Intersexual
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050114RR SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
1. According to Anti-Slavery International (ASI), which of the following statements is true?
A. Debt bondage is a form of slavery.
B. In every condition of slavery, people are owned by other people.
C. Human trafficking is the most common form of slavery.
D. Child slavery is mainly found in middle-income countries.
2. A class system is based on _______, whereas a caste system is stratification based on _______.
A. capitalism; birth
B. either ascription or achievement; birth
C. ascription and achievement; ascription
D. individualism; collectivism
3. Which of the following countries would be considered a middle-income country?
B. Russian Federation
4. Regarding gender socialization in Western cultures, the female world seems to emphasize cooperation and ______, whereas the male world seems to emphasize _______ and action.
A. sharing; independence
B. emotion; competition
C. emotion; independence
D. sharing; competition
5. Oscar Lewis argued that poor people tend to be trapped in
A. a culture of poverty.
B. poverty, due to victim blaming.
C. dead-end occupations.
D. cycles of achievement and despair
6. In the Middle Ages in Europe, the legal concept of primogeniture applied primarily to the _______ estate.
7. When minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture, _______ occurs.
8. At least in the United States, what is the main reason women earn less pay than men?
A. Family responsibilities
B. Discrimination against women
C. Male expectations regarding pay
D. The type of work they do
9. According to your text, if your income is between $28,000 and $49,000 a year, you would be classified as
A. middle class.
B. lower-middle class.
C. upper-middle class.
D. average middle class.
10. If you agreed with the views of Immanuel Wallerstein, which one of the following factors would you think helps create dependency?
A. foreign debt.
B. foreign trade.
C. broad, import-oriented economies.
D. a surplus of industrial capacity.
11. The analysis of the interaction of race, class, and gender is called _______ theory.
D. minority transaction
12. The highest concentration of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is found in
A. Oregon and Washington state.
D. New England and Massachusetts.
13. Classes are harder to define than castes because _______ is present in class systems.
B. status inconsistency
C. role flexibility
D. status prestige variation
14. In the United States, race or ethnicity often serves as a/an _______ status that overshadows an individual's character and accomplishments.
15. Under globalization, the greatest reduction in poverty has occurred in
A. Latin America.
B. South Africa.
16. Regarding gender and education, which of the following statements is true?
A. In 2008, women earned 50 percent of all master's degrees.
B. The majority of lawyers are now women.
C. As of 1992, women earned a majority of post-graduate degrees.
D. The majority of doctors are now women.
17. In Margaret Meade's study of three New Guinea tribal cultures, she found that the Tchambuli were different from the Arapesh and Mundugumor in which of the following ways?
A. Men and women shared many of the same gender traits.
B. Men and women both displayed hostile and aggressive attitudes.
C. "Masculine" traits were expected of women and "feminine" traits characterized men.
D. Gender roles were adopted indiscriminately by both men and women
18. Sociologists apply the concept of socioeconomic status (SES) to their analyses of social class differences. This SES concept reflects the views on stratification proposed by
A. Karl Marx.
B. Max Weber.
C. XXXXX XXXXX.
D. Davis and Moore.
19. Taking a global perspective, if you take the view that affluence, not poverty, requires explanation, then chances are you espouse
A. dependency theory.
B. conflict theory.
C. modernization theory.
D. the core-peripheral distinction among nations.
20. The social construct of race is to _______ traits as the social construct of ethnicity is to _______ traits.
A. genetic; minority
B. biological; cultural
C. biological; minority
D. genetic; cultural
1. In his critique of American education, XXXXX XXXXX referred to the importance of families who read to their children, value learning, and encourage imagination. What did Coleman call these valuable characteristics of family life?
A. Cultural capital
B. Intellectual infrastructure
C. Family infrastructure
D. Social capital
2. Taking a global and historical perspective, it turns out that the most frequently observed form of marriage is
3. Which of the following statements is most consistent with sociological findings?
A. In today's economy, women are increasingly dependent on their husband's income.
B. Individualism is generally associated with family violence.
C. Divorce is most common during the early years of marriage.
D. The vast majority of divorced fathers faithfully fulfill their child-support obligations.
4. In the United States, declining worker membership in unions mainly reflects
A. the decline of wage labor.
B. a shrinking industrial sector.
C. the decline of service-sector employment.
D. a shift to primary-sector production.
5. Which of the following statements is a characteristic particular to the postindustrial economy?
A. Specialization characterizes the division of labor.
B. New sources of energy are exploited.
C. Mechanical skills are replaced by literacy skills.
D. Manufacturing and mass production proliferate.
6. In the view of Max Weber, the routinization of _______ often leads to institutionalization that combines bureaucracy and _______.
A. charisma; coercion
B. charisma; tradition
C. traditional authority; rationalization
D. traditional authority; coercion
7. Which of the following is true in the United States?
A. Conglomerates are considered unethical.
B. Interlocking directorates are illegal.
C. Monopolies are legal.
D. Oligopolies are legal.
8. In the structural-functional perspective, which of the following would be considered a latent function of education?
A. Cultural innovation
B. Social integration
C. Social placement
D. Child care
9. Studies have determined that higher levels of religiosity are correlated with
A. high rates of divorce.
B. moderate levels of patriarchy.
C. faith in science.
D. low rates of delinquency
10. Industrialization and democracy often fit together because both require
A. cooperation and competition.
B. a literate populace.
C. a compliant populace.
D. free trade and competition.
11. John Dewey, an American philosopher of education, argued in favor of what he called progressive education. How does Dewey define progressive education?
A. Students should progress from grade to grade based on scholastic achievement.
B. Students' progress should be evaluated through periodic testing.
C. Schooling should teach students to think independently and question authority.
D. Schooling should be practical and relevant to students' lives.
12. The Thomas theorem stems from the __________ perspective.
13. Which four factors were responsible for the creation of economy as a separate social institution?
A. Industrial technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and stratification
B. Industrial technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and trade
C. Agricultural technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and stratification
D. Agricultural technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and trade
14. The pluralist model of the distribution of power is linked most closely to the _______ perspective.
15. The structural-functional, macro-level approach specifies _______ as a function of the family.
A. material and emotional security
B. ethnic solidarity
C. property inheritance
16. Around the world, according to the World Health Organization, _______ in _______ people suffer from serious illness resulting from poverty.
A. 1; 10
B. 2; 6
C. 6; 100
D. 1; 6
17. Which of the following is a principle of the holistic approach to medicine?
A. Adopt the spirit of euthanasia in the treatment of terminal disease.
B. Emphasize the importance of medication to treat illnesses.
C. Encourage patient responsibility for self-diagnosis.
D. Treat patients as people.
18. In Japan and South Korea, privately owned companies cooperate closely with government in an economic–political system called _______ capitalism.
19. Regarding eating disorders and obesity, which of the following statements is true?
A. Most who suffer from anorexia nervosa are from working-class families.
B. Obesity is increasing even though meals are getting smaller.
C. Obesity is the most serious of the eating-related disorders.
D. About 60 percent of white women are afflicted with an eating disorder.
20. Regarding types of religious organizations, which of the following statements is true?
A. The Amish community is among America's most populous cults.
B. Denominations reject religious pluralism.
C. Christianity began as a cult.
D. A formal church is always aligned with the state.
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Hi Chris 4 wrong # 4-10-12-14
8wrong in social institutions, can you please revised #1 +#2 -#7 #8 #10#11#15 #20.thanks that's filling score
Hi Chris can you help
SOCIAL WORLDS IN TRANSITION
1. With regard to Ferdinand Tönnies' theory of Gemeinschaft societies, which of the following statements is most accurate?
A. The division of labor requires organic solidarity.
B. People are ununited in spite of separating factors.
C. The division of labor requires mechanical solidarity.
D. People are united in spite of separating factors.
2. A woman may bear 20 children during her childbearing years in terms of _______. However, actual _________ is limited by various cultural and environmental constraints.
A. demography; fecundity
B. demography; fertility
C. fertility; fecundity
D. fecundity; fertility
3. Durkheim maintained that industrial societies were held together by _______ solidarity.
4. The theory that argues social movements result when socially isolated people are attracted to a common cause that offers them social identity is the _______ theory.
A. resource mobilization
5. With respect to a specified territory, the difference between emigration and immigration for every 1,000 people per year is called the _______ migration.
6. For Peter Berger, modern societies are characterized by
A. a decreasing awareness of time.
B. increasing social diversity.
C. the rise of traditional communities.
D. the contraction of personal choice.
7. Say that the spokespeople for the "Human Wellness" movement succeeds in changing the attitudes and opinions of the public and key public officials. In the context of social movements and social change, this process is called
A. case making.
B. claims making.
C. rational persuasion.
D. dynamic persuasion
8. Jacob is keen to adopt the latest fashions and is often inclined to imitate role models who appear to be "in the know." David Riesman would probably characterize Jacob as being
A. inner directed.
9. Regarding modernity, you would be correct if you associate "disenchantment" with the work of
A. Max Weber.
B. Karl Marx.
C. Emile Durkheim.
D. Ferdinand TÖnnies.
10. Kai Erikson would say that the most damaging effect of disastrous events occurs when
A. human communities are disrupted.
B. disaster results from the actions of other people.
C. the disaster results from technological failures.
D. people's moral failures are revealed.
11. In many urban areas and on Indian reservations, poor people, many of whom are minorities, have been exposed to hazardous industrial waste. This social phenomenon is referred to as
A. environmental discrimination.
B. residential discrimination.
C. residential racism.
D. environmental racism.
12. Which of the following kinds of environmental problems are irreversible?
A. Polar ice pack melting
B. Water pollution
C. Species extinction
D. Extremely high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
13. Max Weber traced the roots of most social movements to changes in
C. economic conditions.
D. population demographics
14. Social ties have been weakened by bureaucracy and prosperity in what structural-functionalists call a/an _______ society,
15. To attain an ecologically sustainable global society, which of the following measures proposed in your text most directly requires a shift in self-perception?
A. We must control population growth.
B. We must conserve finite resources.
C. We must reduce waste.
D. We must revise egocentric worldviews.
16. What is the main reason that the sex ratio is usually below 100?
A. On average, women live longer than men.
B. One hundred percent is a logical limit.
C. Men are more likely to die in infancy.
D. On average, men live longer than women
17. Urbanites develop a blasé attitude in response to the crush of people, things, and events in the perspective of
A. Robert Park and Louis Wirth.
B. Georg Simmel.
C. Max Weber.
D. Emile Durkheim
18. In the formula I = PAT, "I" stands for _______, "P" stands for population, "A" stand for _______, and "T" stands for technology.
A. impact; atmosphere
B. impact; affluence
C. incidence; atmosphere
D. incidence; affluence
19. Demographic transition theory links population levels to a given society's level of _______ development.
20. Sir Thomas Malthus's most relevant lesson for us today is that
A. modern reproductive technology has had no detectable effect on population growth.
B. population increase is invariably geometric.
C. land, water, and other resources are limited.
D. food production can increase at only an arithmetic rate.
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