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Ellen, Lawyer
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Stages of moral development people fail to reach as per Kohlberg

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Question 20 of 20
5.0 Points
According to Kohlberg, which of the following stages of moral development do the vast majority of people fail to reach?
A. Interpersonal expectations
B. Law and order
C. Universal ethical principles
D. Conformity
Hi Seth,
The answer is:
C. Universal ethical principles
I would be glad to continue our conversation and respond to any follow-up questions that you may have.
Customer: replied 3 years ago.

for some reason the first 19 questions did not post...can i resend them to you?

Customer: replied 3 years ago.

Question 1 of 20

Civil disobedience involves:

A. a vigilante attitude toward those who violate laws and social norms.

B. a peaceful refusal to obey laws that are felt to be unjust.

C. a duty that citizens have to obey democratically created laws.

D. refusing to vote because "it doesn't matter anyway."

Question 2 of 20

Which of the following terms refers to the process of making an effort to understand how each person involved in a situation perceives it and, further, imagining how each person would feel if placed in the other’s position?

A. Universal cognition

B. Instrumental exchange

C. Second-order Golden Rule role taking

D. Care

Question 3 of 20

Though Nazi leaders and war criminals had not committed "crimes" according to German law at the time, we (and the United Nations) might argue that they had committed:

A. crimes of civil disobedience.

B. universal infractions.

C. crimes of conformity.

D. crimes against humanity.

Question 4 of 20

Kohlberg proposed that moral development occurs in a series of stages that are linked with the more general development of __________ skills.

A. spatial

B. conventional

C. cognitive

D. musical

Question 5 of 20

Values and behaviors that are (or appear to be) shared by all human beings, everywhere, are referred to as:

A. ethnocentrisms.

B. objective traits.

C. pragmatic traits.

D. human universals.

Question 6 of 20

Engaging in lawbreaking behavior to achieve a reputation or gain status among peers would be most consistent with which of the following stages of moral development, according to Kohlberg’s model?

A. Punishment/obedience

B. Law and order

C. Social contract

D. Interpersonal expectations and conformity

Question 7 of 20

Which of the following refers to the idea that we sometimes set aside our own interests for the sake of others because we expect that, in the future, others will do the same for us?

A. Kin selection

B. Psychological egoism

C. Psychological altruism

D. Reciprocal altruism

Question 8 of 20

Taking what appears to be moral behavior and explaining it instead in terms of self-interest is a strategy known as:

A. pragmatism.

B. assigning the general to the particular.

C. innatism.

D. reinterpreting motives.

Question 9 of 20

Which of the following refers to a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily (if not exclusively) by our own interests?

A. Egoism

B. Psychological determinism

C. Altruism

D. Ethnocentrism

Question 10 of 20

Altruistic acts are those:

A. intended to serve our own interests.

B. undertaken solely for the benefit of others.

C. that punish cheaters.

D. that strengthen social norms.

Question 11 of 20

If the similarity-leniency hypothesis were true, which of the following would also (likely) be true?

A. White jurors would be more likely to favor minority defendants.

B. White jurors would be harsher when a case involves a white victim and non-white perpetrator.

C. Minority jurors would be harsher on minority defendants.

D. All of the above

Question 12 of 20

Psychological and ethical egoism are explanations of human behavior that emphasize the role of __________ in decision making.

A. mutual respect

B. self-interest

C. religious values

D. socialization

Question 13 of 20

Which of the following ethical frameworks suggests that morality should be linked to human nature, including a concern for human dignity and universal human rights?

A. Utilitarianism

B. Ethical egoism

C. Social hedonism

D. Natural law

Question 14 of 20

Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Henry David Thoreau, and other __________ activists exemplify the ways in which violations of human law might be justified on moral grounds.

A. violent

B. vigilante

C. nonviolent

D. preconventional

Question 15 of 20

When we embody a “wholeness” or, in Plato’s words, “inner balance” in our personal and professional lives which comes from choosing and acting with consistency and in light of a conception of justice and the good life, we could be said to live and work with:

A. honor.

B. integrity.

C. intuition.

D. egoism.

Question 16 of 20

According to Kohlberg, which of the following can provide worthwhile occasions for moral development by inviting us to reflect on the views of others?

A. Role-taking opportunities

B. Reading books about ethics

C. Love and respect within the family

D. Social class and financial well-being

Question 17 of 20

Which of the following hypothetical attitudes most closely resembles the notion that life is a "zero-sum game"?

A. “Everyone is created equal.”

B. “You can only win if someone else loses.”

C. “We all die in the end, so why be good?”

D. “Live and let live.”

Question 18 of 20

To willingly accept some cost to ourselves in order to ensure that those who violate laws and social norms suffer consequences for their behavior is referred to as:

A. altruistic punishment.

B. common punishment.

C. indirect reciprocity.

D. inclusive fitness.

Question 19 of 20

In Carol Gilligan’s stages of moral development, which of the following stages fits the description of “self-sacrificing” where the goal is that the needs of others are more important than one’s own:

A. Preconventional

B. Postconventional

C. Conventional

D. Concrete postconventional


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