1. In hearing a persuasive message, some people will evaluate it in terms of factors that have nothing to do with the content of the message. When this happens, psychologists speak of _______ route processing.
2. With respect to the fundamental attribution error, it turns out that in other cultures, like those of Asia, there's a/an _______ orientation to others that emphasizes interdependence.
3. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identity theory is associated with the concept of
B. stereotypical discrimination.
C. self-fulfilling prophecy.
D. modern racism
4. Four steps are involved in a person's decision to offer assistance in an emergency situation. The third step is
A. assuming responsibility for rendering assistance.
B. deciding how to help.
C. interpreting the event as requiring someone to offer assistance.
D. appraisal of one's skills and experience in dealing with emergencies
5. Which of the following statements best illustrates the concept of the halo effect?
A. Observing that Lois is argumentative and abrasive, Leopold assumes she is a skilled liar.
B. Grenville maintains that Hannibal's faults lie not with the stars but within his character.
C. After Clark missed the foul shot, Coach Smart told him to try practicing for a change.
D. On first meeting Sally, Harry recognized that he and Sally were like two peas in a pod
6. According to your text, whether you're persuaded by a message will primarily depend on which factor?
A. The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament
B. Your perception or understanding of the recipient of the message
C. Your characteristics, including your personality and intelligence
D. Whether you receive the message while at work or at home
7. In the context of stress, the flip side of an uplift is
A. background chaos.
B. a personal stressor.
C. any cataclysmic event.
D. a hassle.
8. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that's-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining
9. Jason and Julia are preparing for a quiz in Psychology 101. Jason recites four reasons for seeking out a social support network. Julia, who has top grades in the class, gives her nod of approval to all but one of Jason's list. Which one is she most likely to reject?
A. Being in a social support network helps a person learn how to win arguments.
B. Support group membership can help a participant feel valued by others.
C. Group members can help a participant with practical things like finding a new job.
D. Being a member of a social support network can help reduce a person's stress levels.
10. As discussed in your textbook, the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
A. requires people to openly express and reveal their latent prejudices.
B. has revealed that most people aren't prejudiced.
C. is based on a culture-free questionnaire.
D. requires subjects to react to a series of black and white faces.
11. Two psychology students are in a heated discussion about the nature of prejudice. Mavis insists that that when people get their identity from membership in a political action group, they will generally express ethnocentrism. Martin argues that with or without ethnocentrism, social identity based in group membership is inevitably associated with the demonization of minority groups. Who is correct?
A. Neither Mavis nor Martin is correct.
B. Mavis is correct.
C. Martin is correct.
D. Both Mavis and Martin are correct
12. Which of the following statements regarding stereotypes and prejudice is true?
A. Discrimination is to action as prejudice is to attitudes.
B. A self-fulfilling prophecy always precedes prejudice.
C. Where there are stereotypes we always find prejudice.
D. Stereotypes may be positive or negative
13. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is
B. flight or fight.
14. The more people there are at the scene of an accident, the less likely it is that individuals will step up to lend a hand. This phenomenon is referred to as
A. diffusion of responsibility.
B. antisocial behavior.
C. diffusion of interest.
D. crowd apathy.
15. Aggressiveness builds up in people because of human nature. It can be safely expressed before it reaches a "boiling point" through the catharsis offered by aggressive sports and games. These kinds of ideas are associated with
A. instinct approaches to aggression.
B. social learning theories.
C. observational learning theories.
D. frustration-aggression theory.
16. On first meeting XXXXX XXXXX from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, a native of Seattle, immediately decides that he and Ian have similar attitudes, feelings, and worldviews. Psychologists say this sort of thing illustrates the
A. self-serving bias.
B. "birds of a feather" error.
C. assumed-similarity bias.
D. fundamental attribution error.
17. In the context of social cognition, what is the primary importance of schemas?
A. They help us organize, store, and recall information about other people.
B. They allow us to correctly identify the central traits of other people.
C. They help us differentiate good people from bad people.
D. They provide accurate and truthful information about social situations and other people.
18. The concept of aggression cues is associated with
A. the work of animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz.
B. frustration-aggression theory.
C. observational learning theories.
D. social learning theories.
19. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking one another. In this context, the reciprocity of liking effect is primarily associated with
A. physical attractiveness.
20. Which statement best expresses the concept of the self-serving bias?
A. We attribute our successes to our skills and abilities and our failures to external factors.
B. We assume that situational causes are brought about by the environment.
C. We tend to think other people are similar to us, even when we first meet them.
D. We nearly always assume that other people's failures are due to their personal characteristics.
21. According to Sternberg, intimacy plus decision/commitment identifies
B. fatuous love.
C. true friendship.
D. companionate love.
22. In general, the approach to stress embraced by psychoneuroimmunologists focuses on
A. the brain and the immune system.
B. the outcomes of stress.
C. psychological factors and the immune system.
D. the brain and the body.
23. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is true?
A. Continued exposure to stress is associated with the secretion of stress-related hormones.
B. Accumulating hassles may well lead to a sudden onset of PTSD.
C. Cataclysmic events such as earthquakes are, inevitably, the most devastating stressors for most people.
D. Psychophysiological disorders are primarily mental disorders.
24. A popular talk show host, jovial and sharp-witted as usual, outlines his views on the death penalty, taking time to consider both sides of the issue. As a long-time listener to that talk show, if you're swayed to adopt the talk-show host's point of view, it will probably be due to
A. your tendency to employ peripheral route processing.
B. the character of the message.
C. the medium of the message (radio).
D. your temperament and character
25. In the "teacher-learner" experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, ______ percent of the experimental subjects eventually applied the "lethal" 450-volt shock to the "learner."