. Which statement is FALSE about the ancient Greek philosophers?
Plato's conception of a Just State is an organizational ideal that evidences a distrust of democracy.
Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean advises one to be virtuous by selecting the virtuous "mean" between two vice extremes of deficiency and excess.
Aristotle's Ethics of Virtue puts primary emphasis on developing and cultivating good moral traits of character.
The Sophists believed that justice, ethics, and morality were universal, objective, permanent, and unchanging norms and standards.
2. What does Kant mean by having a Good Will?
Feeling good about an action so that it is moral pursuant to Ethical Emotism.
Determining what the General Will of society is pursuant to Rousseau's Social Contract theory.
Being nice, polite, and cheerful to people since being nice is an instrumental value.
Having the moral strength of character to do what your reason tells you is the moral thing to do and not to do what you know is wrong.
6. Juana applies Kant’s Categorical Imperative to decide whether to cheat on an examination to get into an MBA program is the “right thing” to do. This means that Juana evaluates her action in light of
Whether the “end” justifies the “means”
Whether the action of cheating is moral in and of itself
Whether Juana feels that cheating is good or bad under the circumstances
Whether she can cheat without getting caught.
8.Which statement is NOT part of Kant's Categorical Imperative?
When in Germany, do as the Germans would do.
Treat people always with dignity and respect.
Act only under those maxims that you would be willing to have as universal "laws."
Act only if you would be willing to be the agent/giver or the receiver of the action.
9.Which of the following is NOT part of the beliefs of Kantian ethics?
All like cases should be treated alike.
Treating others as you want to be treated.
Choosing a course of action that produces the greatest good for society.
Abiding by the rules applied to others in making decisions.
10.Which is false about the Italian political scientist and philosopher, Niccolo Machiavelli?
He viewed people generally very negatively in that they are selfish, greedy, unscrupulous, treacherous, cowardly, stupid, and short-sighted.
He believed that the only true reality, value, good, and goal is power.
He believed that a “virtuous” action could be a traditionally “bad” one if was absolutely necessary to achieve and maintain power.
None; all are true.
Ethics focuses on the way in which ethical principles apply in making moral determinations in life.
Ethics is not concerned with the way moral rules are derived.
The immoral conduct of corporate management is not likely to affect the behavior of lower level employees.
Ethical codes of conduct cannot help to set the ethical tone of a firm.
Natural rights theory
Legal constitutionally when the employer is a private sector one and not a government employer.
A legal invasion of privacy and thus an intentional tort if conducted in a very intrusive manner which infringes on the personal privacy of the employees.
A moral wrong according to Kant if conducted in a disrespectful and demeaning manner.
All of the above.
5. Pursuant to Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean, a modern business corporation should be socially responsible:
Only when the express, written law requires and compels it with criminal sanctions for social non-responsibility.
To a very generous and beneficent extent, regardless of the consequences to the shareholders
Not at all, telling the local community, civic, and charitable leaders to "Get a life and go to government for help"
To a prudent, smart, moderate, middle-of-the-road degree premised on current societal expectations.
Robin Hood of "Merry Olde England" days (who stole from the rich to give to the poor, and who became a big hero)
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France during the Revolution (who said, when told the poor had no bread to eat, said "Let them eat cake," and who, alas, was beheaded)
Francis of Assisi, the son of a rich Italian merchant, who gave away everything to the poor, including the clothes he was wearing, and thus walked around Assisi naked (but who later became a Saint)
Home Depot for focusing prudently and primarily on Habitat for Humanity in their charitable giving and community help efforts.
Pursuant to a sustainability approach to social responsibility it would be inappropriate for a business to undertake charitable acts for the benefit of the community if doing so reduces profits in the short-term but increases profits in the long-term.
Social responsibility audits are not mandated for all corporations by the Federal Trade Commission.
Under a sustainability approach to social responsibility, the modern business corporation only owes any responsibility to the shareholders since they are the owners of the corporation.
One problem with a stakeholder approach to corporate social responsibility is that it is often difficult to determine how the interests of the different stakeholders should be balanced.
Social responsibility by business in the form of civic and charitable contributions to the local community usually is legally required when a local government is suffering a budget deficit.
Today's business executives and managers are well advised to pay attention on the changing perceptions in society as to what constitutes socially responsible behavior by business.
Social responsibility is the notion that a person or business should get involved in civic and charitable affairs in the community.
Social responsibility can include a business seeking to obtain good publicity and a good reputation in the community for its charitable and civic contributions.
Samir, a legal resident of the U.S., applies for a job position with an employer as a word processor. The position requires that a person type into Word documents various old books, many of which have "fine" print, so that they can be converted into electronic editions. Which of the following is NOT a violation of U.S. civil rights laws?
Samir does not get the job because he is dark-skinned.
Samir does not get the job because he is from Pakistan.
Samir does not get the job because his eyesight is very, very poor and not sufficiently correctable.
Samir does not get the job because he is a Muslim.
A bank representative closes the bank vault at night before going home. Unknown to the bank representative, a customer was inside auditing his safe deposit box with the permission of a bank teller. Everyone goes home and the bank representative carelessly forgets to look inside the vault before closing it. The bank vault is closed; and the customer is locked inside for 24 hours. When the vault is opened, the customer is found and rushed to the hospital due to lack of oxygen in the vault. The bank customer ultimately recovers from his injuries, but has medical bills and has been traumatized too. He now sues the bank (and probably will win) pursuant to what legal theory?
Breach of Warranty
Superb Auto Sales sells cars, trucks, and other motor vehicles. A Superb salesperson tells potential customers, "This is the finest car ever made." This statement likely is
an express warranty.
an implied warranty.
a warranty of title.
Able and Baker are both merchants of goods. Able sends Baker an offer; Baker sends back an acceptance but includes therein an additional term, to wit: "All disputes arising out of this contract for the sale of goods will be decided by binding arbitration." What is the best description of the parties' legal standing regarding the additional term in this intended acceptance?
This is not a valid contract because the purported acceptance varied the terms of the offer and thus was a counteroffer and a rejection of the offer.
This is a valid contract because under the Uniform Commercial Code a contract is valid even with additional terms in the acceptance.
This is a valid contract and the additional term automatically becomes part of the contract since both parties are merchants unless the additional term is a material alteration of the contract.
This is not a valid contract since arbitration of legal disputes between merchants is not permissible on grounds of public policy and such commercial disputes are for the courts only.
Eve, an employee of First Bank, is injured. For Eve to receive work¬ers' compensation, the injury must be
accidental and arise out of a preex¬isting disease or condition.
accidental and occur on the job or in the course of employment.
intentional and arise out of a preex¬ist¬ing disease or condition.
intentional and occur on the job or in the course of employment.
Pat goes to the Cosmic Runners Supply Store in Santa Cruz, California. The sales person shows Pat some running shoes and says, "In a race, these shoes will pick up the cosmic energy from the runners around you and channel it into your legs. This transfer of energy causes everyone with these shoes to run twice as fast as in normal shoes." Yet in Pat's next race, she finishes last; and then she sues the store and the sales person for common law fraud. What would be the likely result of such a lawsuit?
Pat would win since the statement was not true.
Pat would lose since her reliance on the statement was not justified as reasonable.
Pat would win if she could prove that the sales person intended to deceive her.
Pat would win since a finding of justifiable reliance is not needed under the FTC's regulatory standard for false and deceptive advertising.
Juanita walks into Freddie's Fast Food Restaurant one day and slips and falls on a wet floor that had just been mopped by one of Freddie's employees, who neglected to put up a "Caution - Wet Floor" warning sign. The employee did not mean any harm; he just forgot to put up the sign. Juanita, however, is injured and sues Freddie. Her lawsuit is:
Breach of warranty-based.
Which of the following is a false statement?
As a general rule, collateral or secondary promises must be in writing to be enforceable.
A guaranty contract situation involves three parties.
To be sufficient under the Statute of Frauds the contract must be signed only by the party who is bringing the lawsuit to enforce the contract.
Under the doctrine of Promissory Estoppel, a promisor may be prevented from raising the defense of lack of consideration.
Damages which are fixed in the amount to be awarded in the event of a breach are known as:
Which of the following is false under the Uniform Partnership Act?
Each partner is personally liable for all of the debts of the partnership.
Any one partner may be held liable for the partnership's entire indebtedness.
Title to land may be taken in the firm name.
The partnership must always have a written partnership agreement prepared by an attorney
A limited liability company in the U.S. offers the limited liability of a corporation.
A limited liability company must be formed in accordance with uniform federal law in the United States.
In some states in the U.S., one-member limited liability companies are permissible.
Unless otherwise agreed, the members of a joint venture share profits and losses equally.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that:
Employers make an all-out effort to accommodate disabled employees regardless of cost or expense.
Employers make a "reasonable" accommodation to disabled employees.
Only large employers with over 1500 employees must make a reasonable accommodation to disabled employees due to the burdens involved.
None of the above.
Questions in writing served by one party on the other prior to trial are called:
A contract provision that seeks to relieve a party to the contract from liability is known as:
An executory clause.
An exculpatory clause.
A mitigating clause.
A liquidated damages clause.
When can a customer list of an employer rise to the level of a legally protected trade secret?
When the list has information in it which possesses value and which the employer has made reasonable efforts to keep the list secret.
When the employer obtains a federal copyright or trademark on it.
When there is concrete evidence that all the employer's customers on the list would be willing to continue doing business with the employer.
When the people on the customer list are readily obtainable from public sources.
Which is FALSE about a Limited Liability Company (LLC)?
No formalities are required by state statute in the forming of an LLC; rather, a simple LLC agreement will suffice to establish legally the LLC.
An LLC can be a member-managed or a manager-managed LLC.
The name of the LLC must include the term "limited liability company" or "LLC."
The members of an LLC are not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the LLC (beyond their original contributions to the LLC).
If the buyer breaches the contract before the goods are completed, the seller can:
Complete the goods and resell them.
Stop work on the goods and resell them as scrap.
Recover damages from the buyer.
A, B and C.
To be convicted of a crime under U.S. laws, the prosecution typically must prove the case against the defendant:
By a preponderance of the evidence.
By clear and convincing evidence.
Beyond a reasonable doubt.
Which of the following is a true statement?
The judicial branch has the authority to examine acts of the legislative branch but not the executive.
The legislative branch of the U.S. government cannot change laws that have been interpreted by Congress.
The preemption doctrine holds that the U.S. Congress can override Supreme Court decisions by a 3/4s vote.
The Supremacy Clause of the U.S. Constitution means that the Constitution and all laws passed pursuant to the Constitution are the supreme law of the land.
Which of the following statements is false?
Only the government may enforce antitrust law.
Private parties, including injured consumers, may enforce the antitrust laws.
The antitrust laws provide for both criminal and civil sanctions.
Successful anti-trust plaintiffs can recover three times their actual damages.
Even an employee at-will can sue for wrongful discharge when he or she:
Is discharged in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
Is discharged in violation of the Public Policy doctrine.
Is negligently discharged by the employer.
All of the above.