1. Which of the following statements regarding taste and smell is true?
A. Taste buds wear out and are replaced about every 25 days.
B. Women tend to have a better sense of smell than men.
C. So-called supertasters may be inclined to obesity.
D. People often have a very short memory of smells
2. Dr. Lombard's research is focused on the capacity of the human mind to store and retrieve information. Her colleague, Dr. Fry, is a clinician who strives to help his clients be "the best that they can be." As a fly on the wall listening to the two psychologists' friendly disputes during coffee breaks, which of these assertions would you most likely expect from Dr. Fry?
A. Mental confusion is best compared to a deficiency in short-term memory.
B. If biology is destiny the concept of free will can be only an illusion.
C. People can't be held resEssentials of
Psychologyponsible for their life choices.
D. A person's basic assumptions about themselves are inevitably false.
3. A clinical experiment is designed in such a way that neither the researchers dispensing a treatment nor the persons in the experimental or control groups know if they're getting a sugar pill or a new drug. This sort of experimental design is employing a/an _______ procedure.
A. reverse psychology
D. experimenter expectations
4. By means of introspection, Dr. Marsh attempts to determine the components of things like perception, thinking, and consciousness. By contrast, Dr. Smyth wants to understand what the mind does in producing different kinds of behavior. We can reasonably assume that Dr. Marsh's research is mainly guided by the principles of
B. Gestalt psychology.
5. Rods are to light intensity as cones are to
A. color perception.
B. the retina.
C. the iris.
D. the optic nerve.
6. Under Weber's law, we'll notice a stimulus difference such that it will be a constant proportion of the intensity of the initial stimulus. Thus, for weight, we'll notice a one-ounce difference in a weight of 50 ounces. Weber's law applies most directly to the concept of
A. sensory adaptation.
B. perceived stimulus.
C. absolute threshold.
D. difference threshold
7. You'll need to select a sample that represents a larger group when you're conducting
A. naturalistic observation.
B. survey research.
C. a case study.
D. archival research
8. In a neuron, the myelin sheath serves to insulate
A. the axon.
B. terminal buttons.
C. the cell body.
9. In his research, Dr. Caulfield wants to compare levels of test anxiety among high school students in grades 10 and 12. His hypothesis is that seniors will have higher levels of test anxiety than sophomores will. His _______ definition of test anxiety for each person in his sample will be a self-reported test-anxiety level, marked in a questionnaire as "high," "moderate," or "low."
10. In the autonomic division of the nervous system, preparing the body for action under conditions of stress is to the sympathetic division as pupil dilation and inhibited digestive processes are to the _______ division.
11. A reflex, like automatically removing your hand from a hot stove, involves pain messages sent to the spinal cord by way of _______ neurons, while the movement of your hand is controlled by _______ neurons.
A. motor; sensory
B. sensory; motor
C. somatic; sympathetic
D. somatic; sensory
12. Which of the following statements regarding depth perception is true?
A. Texture gradient is a monocular cue.
B. Motion parallax is detected because we perceive binocular disparity.
C. Experience teaches us to perceive relative size as an indicator of the color of an object.
D. The change in position of an object relative to the retina is a binocular cue.
13. Among his oil-field buddies, Conrad was known as a cheerfully profane hard drinker who was seldom averse to a barroom scrap. But, after he suffered a head injury in a car accident he returned to work as a docile, timid man who could no longer deal with the violent activity of a drill rig platform. His physicians determined that damage to his __________ was the likely cause of his changed behavior.
14. Within the cerebral cortex, the _______ area is found in the occipital lobe.
A. main auditory
15. Regarding the trichromatic theory of color vision, which statement is most accurate?
A. The theory helps us understand why we see afterimages of different colors.
B. Specialized cells in the retina are sensitive to blue-violet, green, and yellow.
C. The theory maintains that receptor cells are grouped in pairs, such as black-white.
D. Specialized cells in the retina engage in a process called feature detection.
16. In conducting an experiment, the experimenter divides a sample group of 60 children into two groups of 30 called group A and group B. To make sure the two groups are similar in terms of age, IQ, and so on, the experimenter will assign people to either group A or B using a/an ________ assignment procedure, such as a coin toss, where heads sends a subject to group A and tails sends a subject to group B.
17. Regarding the association areas of the cerebral cortex, which of the following statements is most accurate?
A. Changes in personality may indicate damage to the association areas.
B. Most association areas are located in the left cerebral hemisphere.
C. The association areas are largely responsible for neurogenesis.
D. Association areas are to thinking as neuroplasticity is to language.
18. Lorraine and Albert are discussing neurotransmitters, getting ready for an exam. Lorraine maintains that neuronal dendrites sort excitatory and inhibitory messages through a process of elimination dictated by reuptake activity. Albert, on the other hand, argues that inhibitory messages always cancel out excitatory messages. Who is correct?
A. Both Lorraine and Albert are correct.
B. Lorraine is correct.
C. Albert is correct.
D. Neither Lorraine nor Albert is correct
19. The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is more specialized in language functions and processing information sequentially. The right hemisphere tends to specialize in spatial perception and distinguishing patterns. These are examples of cortex
20. I study a sample of 100 high school students and find that student IQ scores increase significantly as the level of reported parental income increases. I can conclude from this that
A. there's a negative relationship between parental income and children's IQ scores.
B. there's a positive correlation between parental income and children's IQ scores.
C. higher parental income causes an increase in children's IQ scores.
D. students get smarter when their parents earn more money.
21. Dr. Jones is interested in how human behavior may be genetically inherited from remote ancestors, such as chimpanzees. Her field of interest is
A. clinical neuropsychology.
B. chemical psychobiology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. behavioral genetics.
22. You could locate receptor sites involved in transmitting a nerve impulse by finding the
A. neural regulators.
23. According to a Gestalt principle called _______, when we're looking at a crowd of people, we tend to perceive people grouped close together as belonging to a common or related group.
24. In the ear, the basilar membrane and hair cells are found in the
A. auditory nerve.
B. oval window.
D. anvil and stirrup.
25. Among the advanced technologies used to study the brain's structure and functions, which one provides detailed three-dimensional images of the brain's structures and activities?
A. Functional magnetic resonance imaging
C. Positron emission tomography
D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation