1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis ____________.
A) is a statement of fact
B) is a proposed explanation based on observations
C) is usually proven to be correct
D) can only be tested once
E) all of the above
2. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
A) I > II > III > IV > V
B) III > I > V > II > IV
C) V > IV > III > II > I
D) I > III > V > II > IV
E) V > II > I > III > IV
3. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?
A) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.
B) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.
C) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.
D) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.
E) Experimental and control group experiments are identical and run in parallel to get repeatable results.
4. The control groups and experimental groups in an experiment differ by __________ variables?
5. You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for plant growth.
To test your hypothesis, one plant is placed in light with and one plant is placed in the dark. At the end of the experiment, you measure the growth of the plants. The dependent variable in this experiment is the:
A) number of plants
B) the amount of light that the plants receive
C) the growth of the plants
D) the type of soil that is used to grow the plants
E) the amount of water that the plants receive
6. A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication, Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90 days; 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 25 of these men decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10%.
Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on results obtained in this experiment?
A) Drug A is good for men
B) Drug A is found in the blood of men
C) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol levels in the blood
D) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol levels in the blood
E) blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A
7. The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?
A) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics
B) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics
C) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted
D) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria
E) both b and d
8. Which statement best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
A) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
B) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
C) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
D) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
9. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. Which of the following organelles are found ONLY in animal cells?
A) golgi body
B) rough endoplasmic reticulum
C) central vacuole
10. A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to determine which type of wheat grew fastest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C wheat grew the fastest.
A) A = 20 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 5 cm, D= 2 cm.
B) A = 2 cm, B = 5 cm, C= 1 cm, D= 2 cm
C) A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm
D) A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm
E) A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm
Use the following information to answer questions 11 & 12 below.
A group of medical researchers recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middle-aged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study).
11. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?
A) the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X
B) the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X
C) the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment
D) the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment
E) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet
12. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results obtained in this experiment?
A) Drug X is good for hypertensive women
B) Drug X is good for both men and women
C) Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood pressure
D) Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood pressure E) Drug X has no effect on blood pressure
13. The atomic number of an atom is the A) the number of protons + the number of neutrons B) the number of protons C) the number of neutrons D) the number of protons + the number of electrons 14. If the atomic mass of sodium is 35 and the atomic number is XXXXX then how many electrons does it have? A) 14 B) 35 C) 11 D) 49
15. If a solution is has a pH of 8, then it is a
A) strong acid B) weak acid C) strong base D) weak base E) neutral
16. When making a graph, A) the independent variable is on the X axis and the dependent variable is on the Y axis B) the independent variable is on the Y axis and the dependent variable is on the X axis C) if you have continuous data that is related, you would make a bar graph D) answer a and c 17. The cell that would be most efficient in transporting substances would have a A) high surface area to volume ratio B) low surface area to volume ratio C) high volume to surface area ratio 18. Which of the following is NOT found in both plant and animal cells? A) nucleus B) plasma membrane C) rough ER D) flagella E) mitochondria 19. If you place an animal cell into a hypertonic solution, it will A) swell B) swell and burst C) shrink D) stay the same
20. Tay Sachs disease is due to a deficiency of which of the following organelles? A) mitochondria B) peroxisome
C) lysosome D) Golgi apparatus 21. Cystic Fibrosis is most closely associated with a deficiency in which organelle? A) nucleus B) flagella C) lysosome D) cell membrane E) cell wall
22. Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide into A) water and oxygen B) water only C) oxygen only D) glucose and oxygen 23. Yeast are _____________ and ___________ catalase. A) eukaryotes, produce B) eukaryotes, do not produce C) prokaryotes, produce D) prokaryotes, do not produce 24. During meiosis, there are ___________ chromatids in each tetrad. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4
25. Homologous chromosomes are found in A) mitosis only B) meiosis I only C) meiosis II only D) both meiosis I and meiosis II
E) both mitosis and meiosis I
MATCHING SECTION #1
MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 0.5 point. The Matching section is worth 5 points.
**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.
TERM or CONCEPT
1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
a. DNA molecule with attached proteins
b. a haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization
3. crossing over
c. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait
d. a type of cell whose primary function is the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction
e. an interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic recombination
6. germ cell
f. nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reactions
g. the process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript
h. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
the type of cell division which is used in asexual reproduction and tissue growth and repair
the type of cell division responsible for gamete formation and sexual reproduction
(a) DNA molecule with attached proteins.
(b) a haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization.
(c) a specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait.
(d) a type of cell whose primary function is the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction.
(e) an interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic recombination.
(f) nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reactions.
(g) the process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript.
(h) the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template.
(i) the type of cell division which is used in asexual reproduction and tissue growth and repair.
(j) the type of cell division responsible for gamete formation and sexual reproduction.
MATCHING SECTION #2
MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 0.5 points. This Matching section is worth 5 points.
contain enzymes for intracellular digestion
are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled
3. Golgi bodies
package cellular secretions for export
4. DNA molecules
extract energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide
5. RNA molecules
synthesize subunits that will be assembled into two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm
6. central vacuoles
translate hereditary instructions into specific proteins
increase cell surface area; store substances
encode hereditary information
help distribute chromosomes to the new cells during cell division
convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch
ANSWERS MATCHING #2:
J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch
INSTRUCTIONS: Provide the best answer for the items below. This section is worth 2.5 points. Please answer all questions in this section.
**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in your best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.
You perform an experiment to measure enzyme activity at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 55 degrees C. You have two samples that you are testing.
1.Would you make a line graph or a bar graph? 2. How many lines or bars would you have? 3 What would be on the X axis and what would be on the Y axis
SHORT ANSWER SECTION
Complete all questions in this Short Answer Section
INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. Total points for this section is 25 points.
**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.
1. Lithops, also called Stoneplants, are a type of plant that resembles little stones. These plants have the ability to blend in with there surrounding, which affords them protection from predators. If you were in an area containing Lithops, describe four characteristics you could identify to distinguish these plants from the stones they mimic.
2. A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass. Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?
3. DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response. 4. Discuss an example of how human activities can change the environment.
5. Pick one item in your house and classify it according to the scheme of kingdom, phylum, class and order. At the end of the classification, it should be clear what the item is.
All questions must be answered in this section.
INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. Total points for this section is 35 points.
1.Before bringing a new drug to the marketplace, extensive testing is done on the drug by administering the drug to large numbers of individuals. Explain the importance of the scientific method, sample size, controls and variable in the drug evaluation process.
2.List the four “large molecules of life.” Identify their composition and structure, and describe one function they perform in the cell.
3.How can you explain the occurrence of birth defects (caused by altered genes) in children and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the victims themselves were only mildly affected?
4.During the past 50 years, more than 200 species of insects that attack crop plants have become highly resistant to DDT and other pesticides. Based on what you have learned in this class regarding evolution, explain the rapid and widespread evolution of resistance. Now that DDT has been banned in the US, what do you expect to happen to levels of resistance to DDT among insect populations?
5.Water is crucial for life as we know it. One of the most important characteristics of water is its ability to act as a solvent. Explain why water is such a good solvent for polar and charged molecules.
6. The enzyme metabolase (found in liver tissue) catalyzes the following reaction:
A + B → AB + CO2 (or carbon dioxide)
The production of carbon dioxide (as observed by bubbling) is evidence that the reaction has
A student performs the following experiment:
1. Three cups are labeled 1, 2 and 3. The same amount of a solution containing A and B is
poured into each cup.
2. Sample 1 is placed in the freezer for ten minutes.
3. Sample 2 is placed into a container of boiling water for three minutes.
4. Sample 3 is left untreated.
Each sample is put into its respective cup and each cup is observed for three minutes. The following
results were obtained:
Cup 1: no bubbling
Cup 2: no bubbling
Cup 3: bubbling
For each sample, explain the results. What conclusion can you make from this experiment?
7. If you were assigned to write an article about Alzheimer’s disease for your biology class, which of the following sources do you think would be best to use. Explain your reasoning. The sources are:
a) www.disease.com b) Journal of Alzheimer’s disease
c) Science Daily d) The New York Times
The questions were previously answered but it says its closed. How do I access those answers or can I not? If not, I will pay 100 but I need them in 3 hours max.
I found the questions. Thank you.
I do need the question answered. I was unable to access the previous questions.
Ok I can answer the multiple choice and matching questions but not the graphing, short answer or essay questions. You can leave the agreed additional $40 as a bonus. When do you need the answers?
The additional was 30 not 40 but for that amount I would need the graphing question and the short answer questions answered as well. I will work on the essay questions. I would need a quick turnaround. I need to submit 90 minutes. Please let me know and thank you very much!
Hi. I got an 80. How do I post your tip? I'm at work asks my browser is out dated so some options aren't slowing up. Thank you again!