33. In an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, if both parents have the disorder, what is the chance that their sons will have the disorder? 34. A male has a particular X-linked recessive genetic disorder. His partner is normal, but her father had the disorder. What is the chance that their sons will have the disorder? 35. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder. If a woman who does not have PKU gives birth to a child who has PKU, which of the following men, based on this information alone, could not be the father of the child? 36. True or false: A boy is color blind. His brother has at least a 50% chance of being color blind. 37. True or false: An abnormality in DNA sequence used in a test to determine an abnormal allele is called a genetic marker. 38. True or false: A genetic profile can detect mutations in a person's genes. 39. The insertion of genetic material into human cells for treatment of a disorder is called what? 40. What is the difference between ex vivo gene therapy and in vivo gene therapy? 41. True or false: Ultrasound images determine the karyotype of the fetus. 42. An autosomal recessive disorder that occurs among all ethnic groups, in which chloride ions fail to pass through a plasma membrane channel protein in the cells and leads these patients to develop thick mucus in their bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts is ________. 43. What disorders are present only in males and are passed from father to all sons but not to daughters. 44. True or false: mRNA processing occurs after transcription. 45. A testable explanation of a broad range of related phenomena that is relied upon by scientists with a high degree of confidence is referred to as ________. 46. The smaller unit molecules (monomers) which combine to form proteins and polypeptides are called ____________. 47. Enzymes, some hormones, and structural molecules like keratin and collagen are examples of ______________. 48. An atom that has gained or lost electrons is referred to as _______________. 49. Cell membranes consist of _____________. 50. Which transport mechanism requires ATP to move materials across a plasma membrane? 51. A cell is placed in a solution. If the cell is observed to shrink, the solution must be _________________ relative to the interior of the cell. 52. What are the 1st and 2nd energy laws? 53. In higher cells, cellular (aerobic) respiration with production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is carried out in the _______________. 54. Meiosis differs from mitosis because _______________. 55. Leaves are green because ____________. 56. Many human traits such as eye color and height are controlled by _______________. 57. ______________ is a nucleic acid base found in ribonucleic acid (RNA) but not in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). 58. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method of ________________. 59. The normal complement of sex chromosomes for a human male is ___________. 60. An allele is ____________. 61. A visual display of metaphase chromosomes arranged by size, shape, and banding pattern is ______. 62. The part of an enzyme that "fits" its substrate is called its __________ site. 63. True or false: recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology estimates the age of a rock sample. 64. True or false: A mutation of a tumor supressor gene is most likely to cause a cell to become cancerous.