1. You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination. To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds is placed in light with warm temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds is placed in the dark under the same set of conditions. The control is:
***A. seeds in the dark
B. seeds in the light
C. warm temperature
D. adequate moisture
E. germination rate
2. A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication, Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90 days; 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 25 of these men decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10%. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on results obtained in this experiment?
A. Drug A is good for men
B. Drug A is found in the blood of men
***C. men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol levels in the blood
D. men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol levels in the blood
E. blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A
3. The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?
A. The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics
B. The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics
***C. Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted
D. The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria
E. both b and d
4. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?
A. Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
B. Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
***C. Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
D. Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
5. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional “reactor” for the production of usable energy. It is called the _____.
A. Golgi body
B. rough endoplasmic reticulum
C. central vacuole
6. A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to determine which type of wheat grew fastest in acidic soil. The plants were grown for 10 days in two soil types: pH = 5 and pH = 8. The results below show mean plant height across the four wheat types. Choose the results demonstrating that Type C wheat grew the fastest in acidic soils. A. pH 5 results: A = 20 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 5 cm, D= 2 cm.
B. pH 8 results: A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm.
***C. pH 5 results: A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm.
D. pH 8 results: A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm.
7. Which of the following is true about correlations vs. experiments:
A. Experiments are more powerful than correlations.
B. No result is absolute (experimental or correlational).
C. Sometimes the best we can do is correlational research (e.g., one earth).
D. Experiments must have multiple independent and dependent variables.
E. All of the above.
***F. A, B & C above are all correct.
8. The recent increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is mainly due a result of an increase in:
A. Primary productivity and human-mediated pollution
B. A failing “Greenhouse Effect” and a hole in the ozone layer
***C. The burning of fossil fuels and wood
D. Cellular respiration by the increasing human population
9. Which of the following would not be an act of predation?
A. A moose nibbling on aspen shoots
***B. A crow feeding on a road-kill rabbit
C. A black bear eating blueberries
D. Disease-causing bacteria invading human lung tissue
10. You are studying a wolf pack in lower Alaska for a period of 10 years. You record their birth and death rates, along with the birth and death rates of their main prey, a deer species. If this wolf population is controlled by “carrying capacity,” which of the following would you expect to see:
A. Wolves are omnivores, so they will not be affected by fluctuations in the deer population.
***B. As they overshoot their carrying capacity, wolf death rates will rise.
C. As they overshoot their carrying capacity, wolf birth rates will rise.
D. Their population will crash before their prey population peaks.
E. The deer population will crash 1 year after the wolves overshoot their carrying capacity.
11. The productivity of an ecosystem refers to the
A. amount of food consumed by the organisms per unit space.
B. average number of offspring produced per adult female per unit time.
***C. amount of biological material produced during a certain period of time.
D. reproductive output.
12. Based on your results from Lab 7, what can you conclude about pH and its impact on plant germination?
A. plants have evolved resistance to changes in pH found in water and soil
B. radish seeds cannot tolerate alkaline water as demonstrated by the solution with baking soda
C. radish seeds cannot tolerate acidic water as demonstrated by the solution with vinegar
***D. acidic rain could affect where and how we grow certain crops
E. our rainwater is becoming more alkaline over time due to air pollution from cars
***You need to check the answer to 12. with the results from Lab 7, but this is my best answer
13. Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon’s warbler as distinct species that lived side by side in parts of their ranges. However, recent books describe them as the eastern and western forms of a single species: the yellow-rumped warbler. Apparently, the two kinds of warblers_________.
A. live in the same areas as a result of human encroachment.
***B. successfully interbreed in nature as evidenced by genetic and behavioral observations.
C. are now identical in appearance as a result of sexual selection.
D. cannot interbreed in laboratory settings.
14. In reference to Lab 6 on taxonomy, which of the following is the best way to classify organisms:
***A. Genetics are best because when organisms share the same genes, they share a common ancestor
B. Function is the best because when organisms use their limbs in similar ways it shows relatedness
C. Color is the best because when organisms have similar coat or skin color it shows relatedness
D. Behavior is the best because when organisms perform a similar role in an ecosystem it shows relatedness
Use the following information to answer questions 15 & 16 below. A group of medical researchers recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middle-aged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study).
15. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?
A. the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X
***B. the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X
C. the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment
D. the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment
E. the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet
16. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results obtained in this experiment?
A. Drug X is good for hypertensive women.
B. Drug X is good for both men and women.
***C. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood pressure.
D. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood pressure.
FILL IN THE BLANKS: Choose the letter that best completes the statement or answers the question. Worth two points each.
17. Fossils suggest that the first major trait distinguishing human primates from other primates was ______.
***B. Enlarged brain
C. Opposable thumbs
D. Increased language abilities
18. From the choices listed below, plant diversity is greatest in the __________?
***A. Rainforests of Brazil
B. Coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia
C. Deciduous forests of Canada
D. The Mojave Desert
19. You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude, it must be a _______________ cell.
20. A scientific theory _____________________.
A. is an experiment performed by scientists to understand their observations of nature
B. is an observable fact in nature
***C. is an explanation of many observations of nature, which is supported by several pieces of research
D. is an educated guess
E. is an absolute truth that cannot be challenged or changed upon examination of new evidence
21. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is _________.
***A. basic, acidic
B. acidic, basic
C. basic, neutral
D. neutral, acidic E. neutral, basic
22. The process of ______ and ______ generate genetic variation among populations, while _____ allows them to adapt to their environment.
A. sexual reproduction…natural selection…mutation
***B. mutation…sexual reproduction…natural selection
C. natural selection…sexual selection…mutation
D. genetic drift…sexual reproduction…natural selection
23. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built directly using the amino acids?
C. nucleic acids
Match each term with the most suitable description. Worth two points each.
24. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) ----- F.
25. chromosome ----- A.
26. crossing over ----- E.
27. gamete ----- B.
28. gene ----- C.
29. germ cell ----- D.
30. meiosis ----- J.
31. mitosis ----- I.
32. translation ----- G.
33. transcription ----- H.
A. DNA molecule with attached proteins. B. a haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization. C. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait. D. a type of cell whose primary function is the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction. E. an interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic recombination. F. nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reactions. G. the process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript. H. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template. I. the type of cell division which is used in asexual reproduction and tissue growth and repair. J. the type of cell division responsible for gamete formation and sexual reproduction.
MATCHING QUESTIONS - SET #2: Match each term with the most suitable description. Worth two points each.
34. microtubules --- I.
35. chloroplasts --- J.
36. Golgi bodies --- C.
37. DNA molecules --- H.
38. RNA molecules --- F.
39. central vacuoles --- G.
40. lysosomes --- A.
41. mitochondria --- D.
42. nucleoli --- E.
43. ribosomes --- B.
A. contain enzymes for intracellular digestion B. are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled C. package cellular secretions for export D. extract energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide E. synthesize subunits that will be assembled into two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm F. translate hereditary instructions into specific proteins G. increase cell surface area; store substances H. encode hereditary information I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells during cell division J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch