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Ray Atkinson
Ray Atkinson, Graduate Student
Category: Homework
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Experience:  Inner-city high school substitute teacher. Degrees in mathemetics, accounting, and education. Years and years of tutoring.
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1. What are the differences , if any, between the flagella

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1. What are the differences , if any, between the flagella of gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria? Why do you think those differences? if there are any, exist?If there are no differences, why do you think this is the case?

2. A textbook states that there are 5 nucleotides that are found in a cell, but a lab worker reports that she has isolated 8. Explain why they are both correct?

3. A gram stain only separates bacteria into two groups- Gram positive and gram negative, What is it about each type of bacteria that causes them to stain in these ways ? Why is breaking them into two groups important?

I need each to be at least 80 words and it's due this afternoon. Thanks.

Ray Atkinson :

Each question needs to be 80 words? The first one is a simple two-sentence answer. Do I need to go into technical details to explain the difference?

Ray Atkinson :

The second question is equally simple.

Customer:

I cannot see the answer.

Customer:

No it doesnt have to be 80 words.

Ray Atkinson :

I will get it typed up right away.

Customer:

Ok thank you

Ray Atkinson :

Gram-negative bacteria have four flagella while gram-positive have two. This is because gram-negative bacteria have two membrane layers compared with the one that gram-positive bacteria has.

It is true that there are 5 nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), but to make full nucleotides, they need to attach to a pentose sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose). five bases and two sugars would be 10 nucleotides, but ribose does not form with thymine and deoxyribose does not form with uracil, so there are eight possible nucleotides.

It is important to differentiate between gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive because the strong wall in gram-negative makes it much more resistant to antibodies and penicillin, which will kill gram-positive bacteria. Knowing which is which makes treating a bacterial infection much easier, faster, and more effective.

Ray Atkinson :

If you wanted to, you could go into the details about the two membrane layers in gram-negative to pad out the first question, but if you don't need it any longer, the answer is fine as is.

Ray Atkinson :

Are they long enough?

Ray Atkinson :

If they are, please remember to rate my answer.

Customer:

I think i need a little more for the first ques.

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All right. Let me fill that out more for you.
I just re-read what i wrote for #1, and noticed that I missed an important word. "Gram-negative bacteria have four flagella rings while gram-positive have two. This is because gram-negative bacteria have two membrane layers compared with the one that gram-positive bacteria has." The rings are what anchor the flagella to the bacteria.

I really cannot see any more that I can add to that statement. The question asks about the difference between the flagella in gram-positive and negative, and that seems that the only difference is the anchoring rings.