Question 1 Pat, product development manager for Agricultural Hybrids, Inc., applies Utilitarian ethics to determine that an action is morally correct when it produces
A) The greatest good for Pat
B)The greatest good for the most people affected by the action
C) The greatest good for Pat’s company and its shareholders since they are the only true stakeholder groups
D) Good emotional feelings that arise in Pat
Question 2 By having a “good will,” Kant fundamentally meant that one:
A) Should use one’s conscience and intuition to determine morality.
B) Should have the strength and will-power to get power and position and to achieve one’s goals.
C)Should have the strength of character to do what is morally right and not do what is morally wrong.
D)Should always be the first to buy a “round of drinks” for one’s friends at Happy Hour. .
Question 3 Which of the following is a correct statement?
A) According to the utilitarian ethical theory, a personal and subjective calculation of the good is required since some people are more important and worthwhile than others.
B) Utilitarianism underscores the long-term consequences of an action in determining its morality.
C)Even though some consequences will never be fully knowable, a utilitarian would advise that one guess and speculate as to the consequences in order to determine the morality of an action.
D) Since money is too materialistic a good, it cannot be used as a measurement in quantifying pleasure and pain. .
Question 4 Don is a manager with Engineering Aviation Systems. At a company ethics meeting, Don’s most effective argument against utilitarianism is that it
A) gives profits priority over costs.
B)ignores the practical costs of a given set of circumstances.
C) justifies human costs that many persons may find morally unacceptable.
D) requires cost-benefit analyses of simple situations. .
Question 5 Jaquanda, a lawyer, on the staff of International Marketing Group, applies the Utilitarian theory of ethics in business contexts. Utilitarianism focuses on
A) A set of legal values
B)Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean
C)The consequences of an action
D) The nature or form of an action. .
Question 6 A problem with the theory of ethical relativism is: Answer
A)Defining the appropriate “society.”
B)The inability to make comparative moral judgments between and among societies.
C)The inability to criticize a society as immoral for its moral norms. D)All are problems. .
Question 7 Kantian ethics can best be characterized by:
A) The consultation of an outside source, such as a book or person, for guidance.
B)The belief that a person must decide what course of action is proper based on that person’s own set of beliefs or feelings.
C)Determining which course of action produces the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.
D)A set of universal moral rules based on reasoning which must be applied regardless of consequences. .
Question 8 According to the Universal Law principle in Kant’s Categorical Imperative, what is moral basically depends on:
A) What the United Nations says is legal.
B)What a country’s legislature says is legal.
C)What a society regards XXXXX XXXXX law.
D) What would happen, using one’s reason, if all people followed a particular action? .
Question 9 A major criticism that Kant would make of Utilitarianism is that:
a. It is an egalitarian doctrine that registers the pleasure and pain of everyone affected by an action.
b. It counts the pleasure and pain of animals since they feel pleasure and pain.
c. It is an immoral ethical doctrine because it can morally legitimize the suffering of a minority in an effort to achieve the greater good for society as a whole.
d. It is difficult to get an accurate definition of "society" so as to determine societal moral norms. .
Question 10 Ingrid firmly believes that each person must look at her own feelings of what is right and wrong in order to decide what is moral. Which of the following ethical theories most accurately describes Ingrid’s beliefs?