with little influence or control from Mexico City.
12. ________ initiated the politics of Manifest Destiny by pushing the annexation of the Texan Republic. He did so because, as the first vice president to become president, he alienated his own party leaders and had to find an issue that would attract popular support for his bid for a second term.
|James K. Polk|
After successfully defeating the Mexican army, Texas
|became a self-governing province within the Mexican federation.|
|became an independent nation, unrecognized by Mexico.|
|was admitted to the United States.|
forced the Mexican government to recognize its independence.
14. The settlements of the Mormons in Utah
|were established as family-centered communities dominated by church leaders.|
|were established on land grants obtained from the federal government.|
|at first exhibited the typical character of a raw, disproportionately male, disorderly frontier area.|
at first developed as a scattered, unplanned series of refugee encampments.
15. A famous novel by the daughter of Lyman Beecher rallied northern hostility toward one particular component of the Compromise of 1850,
|the provision that Mormon Utah could decide for itself whether to be slave or free.|
|the re-drawing of the Texas boundary.|
|the fugitive slave law, which allowed southerners to more easily reclaim their runaway slaves.|
the failure to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia.
16. The antislavery message of the Free Soil supporters was first introduced in what form?
|as a label for a new political party that attracted supporters from among both Whigs and Democrats|
|as a lengthy essay by a widely read editor, William Lloyd Garrison|
|as a proposed legislated policy: the Wilmot Proviso|
as a method by which new territories would be organized in the Compromise of 1850
17. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement concerning the consequences of the Mexican War?
|The war temporarily unified the country as both parties and all sections supported President Polk and approved the war effort.|
|The United States purchased California and the interior southwest from Mexico.|
|A proposal was introduced in Congress to ban slavery in any new territory; though it never passed, the idea became central to the antislavery movement in the 1850s.|
The acquisition of new territories pushed the slavery issue to the forefront of national politics.
18. In the 1848 election campaign, which party set forth a clear position on the slavery issue?
|Free Soil party|
All these answers are correct.
19. The trek west on the Overland Trail
|followed Lewis and Clark's route across the plains; and established agricultural societies that were deliberately different from those in the East.|
|followed traditional gender roles despite women's quest to act like men; and once in the West, the emigrants developed a new frontier society where women had little influence.|
|was plagued by periodic attacks by hostile Indians, but the U.S. government refused to provide a military presence before the Civil War.|
was difficult and stressful on everyone involved, but placed a special strain on women.
20. Which of the following was NOT a United States territorial acquisition in the 1840s?
|the area between the Rockies and California|
|the area between the Rockies and the Missouri River|
Oregon south of the 49th parallel
Which of the following is NOT a way that the Confederacy was like the North?
|Each government financed the war through taxes and issuing paper money.|
|Both presidents, despite little military background, ably directed the war effort.|
|Each government relied initially on volunteer soldiers, but later had to institute a draft, which provoked deep hostility.|
The demands of war tended to increase the power of the central government and accelerate industrialization on both sides.
Lincoln, later revered as the Great Emancipator, ironically infringed on the civil liberties of northerners during the Civil War—specifically by
|suspending the writ of habeas corpus in areas still in rebellion in the South.|
|recommending postponement of the presidential election due to be held in 1864.|
|defying the Supreme Court's order to free those imprisoned without being charged.|
suspending the writ of habeas corpus in specified areas in the North.
3. The Union war effort began by implementing the strategy embodied in General Winfield Scott's "anaconda plan," which called for
|a concealed and roundabout infiltration of Confederate territory west of the Mississippi.|
|postponing direct military operations until the North's industrial capacity could be brought up to full military production.|
|a sudden strike against a vulnerable point of the borders of the Confederacy.|
encircling and squeezing the Confederacy with a naval blockade.
4. At the beginning of the Civil War, which one of the following factors favored the South?
|the potential for developing an industrial base to sustain the war effort|
|the fact that the fighting would be on southern soil|
|the manpower pool|
the transportation system
The Civil War marked a significant change in the history of human warfare, in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?
|The complexity, size, and spatial spread of the armies on the battlefield jumped in magnitude.|
|It was the first total war in history.|
|More soldiers died of battle wounds than camp diseases.|
The technology of weaponry gave the defense the advantage over the offense.
6. With respect to slavery, Lincoln at first ________, but later he ________.
|was indifferent to the slavery issue; freed all slaves by executive order|
|resisted any interference with the institution; reluctantly went along with Congress's initiative in ending slavery by Constitutional amendment|
|worried about alienating the border states; proclaimed, as a military measure, that slaves in rebel areas were free|
lagged behind northern opinion, which strongly supported emancipation; urged Congress not only to end slavery but also to give blacks full social and political equality
7. Lincoln finally found "his general." Who was he, and why?
|General Grant, who was willing to keep attacking with the tactics of total and relentless war|
|General Meade, who won the decisive battle of the war at Gettysburg|
|General Sherman, who showed a willingness to carry the war to the South's civilian population|
General McClellan, who displayed great gifts as an organizer and trainer of large armies
8. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the impact of the war?
|The principle was established that the American union is perpetual.|
|The loss of life nearly equaled the combined battle deaths of all of America's other wars.|
|The nation's political balance of power shifted dramatically.|
The richest section of the country (in terms of white per capita wealth) became even richer.
9. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation declared slaves to be free
|in those areas of the South under Union control.|
|in those areas of the South under Confederate control.|
|everywhere in the U.S. (including the South).|
in the border states and western territories.
10. The North raised money to support the war effort through all of the following methods EXCEPT
|loans (i.e., government bonds).|
|printing paper money.|
accepting fees from draftees in lieu of induction.
The chapter introduction tells the story of the first battle of Manassas (Bull Run) to make the point that
|the Confederate army was unprepared to fight.|
|the Union army was unprepared to fight.|
|both sides underestimated what it would be like to fight a total war.|
although the North had the advantage of initiative, the fighting would often turn out to be a series of Confederate victories against all odds.
12. The Republican Congress during the Civil War passed economic legislation that would have warmed Henry Clay's heart, including all EXCEPT
|the restriction of money to hard currency ("specie").|
|a system of nationally-chartered banks.|
|a program to underwrite the costs of public colleges.|
a protective tariff.
13. During the war, women of both the North and the South did all of the following EXCEPT
|enter the formerly male professions of nursing and teaching.|
|run farms and plantations.|
take jobs in the growing government bureaucracies.
14. According to the text, what was the event that decided the "war in the balance"—that is, the event that both ended any last hopes of the Confederacy and assured the abolition of slavery?
|the elevation of Grant to Commander in Chief|
|the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg|
|the Emancipation Proclamation|
the re-election of Lincoln
15. One significant difference between the Confederacy and the North was that
|fighting for a cause, the South sustained a strong sense of morality and discipline, while the perils and profits of war undermined the moral order of northern society.|
|the South became poorer, while the North tended to prosper.|
|the South had to resort to a draft, while the North was able to raise its army from volunteers.|
southerners initially romanticized the war, expecting a swift end, but northerners more realistically expected a long and ugly struggle.
16. The battle at Antietam Creek was significant for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
|that it was the bloodiest single-day battle in the history of American warfare.|
|that it repulsed a Confederate invasion of the North.|
|that it provided an occasion for Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.|
that it proved McClellan could mastermind a victory after all.
17. Both South and North experienced rioting during the war. Why?
|on both sides, over military regulations like the draft and economic controls|
|in the South over easing slave codes; in the North over jailing dissidents|
|on both sides, over centralization of political power|
in the South over food; in the North over the draft
18. Although at the outset European experts expected the Confederacy to prevail, the North won, demonstrating that in modern war, ________ can offset ________.
|technology; terrain and distance|
|strategic planning; idealistic determination|
|sheer numerical superiority; the advantages of superior leadership|
industrial power; agricultural power
19. What was Jefferson Davis's central problem in organizing the South for war?
|In a war that required rapid mobilization of a whole society, most ordinary folk in the South expected a protracted conflict and hence were reluctant to enlist.|
|In a crisis that demanded tough-minded attention to military details, Davis was more of a grand strategist.|
|In a culture that prized the English country gentry, Davis was rough-hewn and awkward.|
In a society that prized states' rights, Davis had to centralize authority.
20. The Confederacy suffered from rampant inflation because
|speculators hoarded cotton.|
|the war was financed primarily through printing paper money.|
|wages rose, due to the fact that with so many men off to war, workers were scarce.|
|the blockade cut off trade with Europe, producing scarcities.|