1. In the United States and other western cultures, the path to heightened levels of self-esteem is believed to be
a. a complete understanding of one's self
b. group success
c. personal success
d. an accurate assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the group to which one belongs.
2. According to the theorists, personality is acquired through classical and operant conditioning, observational learning, reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and discrimination.
3. According to behavioral personality theorists, what is predictable about personality is that people tend to
a. react in an angry and aggressive manner when frustrated.
b. be dominated by their inborn temperamental traits.
c. respond in consistent ways to certain types of situations.
d. respond differently based on their age, gender, and cultural differences.
4. According to the text, early behaviorists overlooked a crucial element in their theories of personality, which is the fact that
a. much of behavior is affected by the situation in which it occurs.
b. behaviors are identical to personality, which is shaped by learning.
c. people have stable traits that are unchanged by experience.
d. people think and have different perceptions and expectations.
5. researchers have found that people with a close match between their and tend to be socially poised, confident, and resourceful, while those that have a poor match are depressed, anxious, and insecure.
a. id and ego
b. self-image and ideal self
c. ego ideal and conscience
d. psychosexual stages and psychosocial stages
6. The main criticism of humanistic theory is that
a. it emphasizes the negative dimensions of personality
b. it is research rather than experience-oriented.
c. its concepts are imprecise and difficult to study objectively.
d. its approach is more empirical than philisophical
7. Interviews are used to do all of the following EXCEPT
a. gain rapid insight into personality
b. select people for jobs, college, or special programs
c. control a client's behavior in therapy
d. gain information about a person through observing his or her body language.
8. If I rate a student highly on all traits on a college entrance form because I am impressed with their artistic talent, I am illustrating a
a. halo effect
b. self-promoting belief
c. public self-conciousness
d. over evaluation
9. The MMPI-2 was primarily desighned
a. to identify people with particular psychological problems
b. for use with children under age 10
c. for use with the intellectually disabled people
d. to identify vocational prefrences
10. The validity scales on the MMPI-2
a. are designed to detect habitual dishonesty
b. identify antisocial or delinquent people
c. detect unconscious motives the test-taker might normally lie about
d. detect attempts to make oneself look good or bad