Also, can you be a little more specific about what you mean by "types?"

Ray Atkinson :

Do you mean the function of the keyboard?

Customer:

I was reviewing this new Logic class and it requires typing some answers in symbols. I just want to know where they are on my computer?

Customer:

yes

Ray Atkinson :

Which ones do you need?

Customer:

one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens.

Ray Atkinson :

Do you mean the → symbol and items like that?

Customer:

yes

Customer:

I am to type an augument in english then

one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens.

Ray Atkinson :

Ok, can you give me a specific list of symbols you need?

Ray Atkinson :

Hmmm. First, please tell me that you are using a desktop and not a laptop?

Customer:

modus ponens-what are they?

modus tollens-what are they?

I am using a desktop

Ray Atkinson :

Modus ponens and Modus tollens are not symbols. They are two inferences. Modus ponens says that P implies Q, so if P is true, then so is Q. Modus tollens says that P implies Q, so if Q is false, then so is P

Ray Atkinson :

On a desktop, hold down the <alt> key and type 26 on your number pad, not the row, and let go of the alt key →

Customer:

That is Greek to me: Customer Question see assignment below:

Write two arguments in English, one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens. Then, write the arguments in symbols using sentence letters and truth-functional connectives. (If your computer does not have all the symbols needed, use some other symbol you do have access to and explain what its meaning is.)

What advantages does being able to symbolize our arguments provide? Are there disadvantages to using this technique to make the structure of our arguments more explicit and clear?

Question 2- Imagine someone asks you what you have learned in your logic class and what you found to be the most useful information you learned there. Is it important for people to study logic? What kinds of mistakes might they make without having been exposed to a careful study of reasoning provided by logic?

Ray Atkinson :

Aha. That clears things up a lot.

Ray Atkinson :

Let me work on it a little. When is it due?

Customer:

I am thrilled you are clear. I am not. Help, please.

Ray Atkinson :

I can assume that you can do #2? That is an opinion question

Ray Atkinson :

I can answer the third part of #2

Customer:

ok

Customer:

also, how much tutoring do i get from u for 60$?

Ray Atkinson :

It depends on what you need from this assignment.

Ray Atkinson :

I still need to know how soon you need this finished.

Customer:

How soon canyou have it complete?

The reason i ask, is this is my first course in logic. I am probably going to need a tutor. it is a five week course. i cannot afford 60$ each time. So if you can provide a better cost, i may be interested in hiring you. can i get a flat rate?

Ray Atkinson :

That is a question that I would have you raise with customer service. I know that they have subscription plans, but know nothing about that end of the service.

Ray Atkinson :

If you do it that way, you can certainly have my help. All you would need to do it put my name at the beginning of the question.

Ray Atkinson :

As for how soon I can have it, he reason I ask is the level of detail I can give. If you need it in 10 minutes, my answer is going to be very short. If you need it tonight, or tomorrow, it can be much longer.

Customer:

ok thanks for that info. back to my original question. i just wanted to know if my computer was equipped with modus ponens symbols-what they are? and modus tollens-what are they? according to the instructor guidance they are some type of computer symbols and i couldn't find them on my keyboard.

Ray Atkinson :

There are none specifically for logic other than the arrows like → ← ↔

Ray Atkinson :

There is intersection ∩

Ray Atkinson :

You can fake the "therefore" with .·.

Ray Atkinson :

As I said, modus tollens and modus ponens are not symbols, but types of logic.

Ray Atkinson :

The form for Modus ponens is P→Q, P .·. Q The form for Modus tollens is P→Q, ~Q .·. ~P

Customer:

S what that change the configuration of my keyborad or the letters?

Ray Atkinson :

Hold down the <alt> key and type 26 on your numpad, then let go of the <alt>

Customer:

→ ok i did. is that it?

Ray Atkinson :

Yes, that is the "implies" symbol.

Ray Atkinson :

You can also use 16 ►, or 0187 »

Ray Atkinson :

I think 26 looks best, though.

Customer:

so this is what i do each time i want to signify implies ?

Ray Atkinson :

For the .·., type a regular period, then <alt>250, then another period.

Customer:

ok

Ray Atkinson :

Yes. Alt-code 26 is →

Ray Atkinson :

alt-code 250 is ·

Customer:

·

Ray Atkinson :

I use the alt-codes all the time when doing math. 251 is √, 253 is ², 0179 is ³

Customer:

these will come in handy in algebra. thanks. is there a manual or list?

Ray Atkinson :

Modus Ponens: If we assume that it is true that if a flag is flying straight out, then it is windy, then if the flag is flying like that, then it is true that the wind is blowing. P: The flag is flying out Q: The wind is blowing P→Q, P .·. Q

Ray Atkinson :

Modus Tollens: If someone breaks in, the alarm will go off. The alarm did not go off, so no one broke in. P: Someone broke in. Q: The alarm went off. P→Q, ~Q .·. ~P

Ray Atkinson :

Modus ponens is a positive statement, and modus tollens is the contrapositive.

Customer:

How do I find that out on my own or must I contact you?