- 1. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
- Make observations and ask a question
- Analyze the data
- Develop a hypothesis
IV. Share the results with other scientists
- Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis
A) I>II > III > IV > V
B) III > I > V > II > IV
C) V> IV > III > II > I
D) I> III > V >II > IV
E) V > II > I > III > IV
- 2. You have formulated a hypothesis: “Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.”
To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control in the experiment is
A) type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard
B) vitamin C levels
E) a large sample size and repeated experiment
***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4 below***:
A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).
- 3. Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?
A) Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years?
B) Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.
C) Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men, drug X is most likely beneficial.
D) Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take drug X over a 3 week period.
E) There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and those that don’t take it.
- 4. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?
A) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet
B) the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment
C) the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X
D) the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X
E) the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment
5. Where does the oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis come from?
C) carbon dioxide (CO2)
E) the atmosphere
- 6. Which of the following are polysaccharides?
A) RNA and DNA
B) Glucose and sucrose
C) Cholesterol and vegetable oil
D) Glycogen and starch
E) Adenine and thymine
7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?
B) S phase
8. Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?
- 9. The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.
A) an enhancement of the greenhouse effect
B) a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy
C) a thinning of the ozone layer
D) a melting of the polar ice caps
E) an increase in solar radiation
10. The liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would you expect in this same animal?
11. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?
A) You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.
B) You get thirstier because of osmosis.
C) Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.
D) Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.
E) You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells.
12. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase. Should you be worried?
A) ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So don’t worry!
B) ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals, humans included, will be affected. Call the doctor.
C) ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.
D) ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call the doctor.
E) ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic ingredients in the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.
13. In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?
12 H20 + 6 CO2 -> 1 glucose molecule + 6 O2
D) activation factor
E) independent variable
14. Which of the following is NOT a feature of DNA?
A) Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)
B) Complimentary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions
C) Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups
D) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds
E) All of the above are features of DNA
15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene on to
A) All of his daughters
B) Half of his daughters
C) All of his sons
D) Half of his sons
E) All of his children
16. A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have
A) 28% thymine
B) 22% cytosine
C) 44% adenine
D) 26% uracil
E) Both A and B are correct
17. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?
A) A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates
B) A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches
C) A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates
D) A pigeon learns that when its keeper comes near it will be fed
E) All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection
18. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?
A) They share a recent common ancestor
B) They are both adapted to environments low in light
C) The ability to produce light is an ancient trait
D) They are found in the same location
E) All of the above
19. You observe the following outside your window: A grasshopper is munching away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the grasshopper in this situation?
a) secondary consumer
e) both B and C
20. Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?
a) The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.
b) Meiosis and mitosis both start with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.
c) Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.
d) Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.
e) Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.
21. All of the following are sign that a website contains reliable scientific information EXCEPT
- The site avoids anecdotal evidence
- The site backs up its claim with references to primary resources
- The site is set up to allow you to buy the product being described
- The site is frequently updated to incorporate more recent information
- The site is maintained by a reputable medical establishment
22. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?
- Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
- Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
- Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
- Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
- Animals produce only O2 and plants produce only CO2.
23. What are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis?
A) electrons, oxygen, and hydroxide ions
B) electrons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions
C) electrons and oxygen only
D) electrons, oxygen, and photons
E) electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions
24. In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems:
A) generate energy storage molecules.
B) generate ADP .
C) generate oxygen.
D) require H2O.
E) require CO2 .
25. The carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters the plant through the:
26. Cellular respiration is the process by which:
A) oxygen is produced during metabolic activity.
B) light energy is converted into kinetic energy.
C) oxygen is used to transport chemical energy throughout the body.
D) energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.
E) ATP molecules are converted into water and sugar.
27. A laboratory animal technologist has obtained a mouse variety in which the allele for black fur (C) is dominant over the allele for cream fur (c), and the allele for short tail (s) is recessive to long tail (S). The genotype of a mouse that was homozygous for black fur and short tail would be ________________.
A) is not performed in plants, which get their energy solely through photosynthesis.
B) occurs in all cells.
C) is performed solely on the glucose ingested by the organism.
D) is also referred to as the Krebs cycle.
E) completely oxidizes glucose to carbon dioxide.
29. Three different metabolic pathways are responsible for the production of ATP. What are they?
A) glycolysis, oxidation, and the Calvin cycle reactions
B) hydrolysis, active transport, and the light reactions
C) glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
D) substrate inhibition, catabolism, and fermentation
E) None of the above is correct.
30. What are stem cells?
A) found in all multicellular organisms
B) undifferentiated cells
C) may be used to regenerate heart tissues
D) may be obtained from embryos, fat cells or amniotic/umbilical cord tissues
E) all of the above
31. How do temperate or cooler rainforests store more carbon than tropical rainforests?
A) less trees and shallow soils
B) greater capacity to store carbon in plant material
C) nutrient poor soils
D) quickly growing, short trees
E) less trees in cooler areas than in warmer areas
32. Water molecules form which type of bond with other water molecules?
A) disulfide bridges
B) ionic bonds
C) hydrogen bonds
D) covalent bonds
E) Van der waals bonds
33. The pH of a fluid is a measure of:
A) its capacity to function as a soap.
B) how acidic or basic it is.
C) the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in it.
D) its enzymatic stability.
E) the concentration of phosphate groups.
34. Starch belongs in the class of molecules known as:
A) amino acids.
E) nucleic acids.
A) act as a relatively quickly available source of fuel.
B) serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form other molecules that are essential for biological structures and functions like nucleic acids.
C) in the form of oligosaccharides are often covalently bonded to proteins and lipids on the outer cell surface, where they serve as cell recognition signals.
D) are a good source of sustained energy when they come in the form of polysaccharides.
E) All of the above.
36. The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells—transport is directional and selective. The moving of molecules from areas of high concentration to that of low concentration to gain energy is best described as:
A) channel mediated diffusion.
B) electron transport.
C) active transport.
D) inactivated transport.
E) passive transport.
37. Prokaryotic organisms lack:
A) replicator molecules (DNA or RNA).
B) cell membranes.
E) All of the above.
38. The organelle in the figure is found in:
A) animals only.
B) plants only.
C) plants, animals, and bacteria.
D) plants and animals.
E) bacteria only.
39. Which of the following is the outermost feature on the surface of a plant cell?
A) lipid bilayer
C) cell wall
E) sugar molecules
40. What is the most important barrier protecting the inner contents of an animal cell from its exterior environment?
A) the cellular membrane
B) the cell wall
C) the nucleus
D) the cytoskeleton
E) Both a) and b) are correct.
41. In aquatic environments, water moves _____________.
A) down the water concentration scale
B) against the water concentration gradient
C) up the water concentration scale
D) down the water concentration gradient
E) up the water concentration gradient
42. Alternate versions of a gene are called _______________. They can code for different ________________ of the same character.
A) bases; alleles
B) alleles; bases
C) bases; chromosomes
D) chromosomes; traits
E) alleles; traits
43. Evolution occurs at the level of organization of the ___________________.
(e) none of the above
44. The ultimate source of all new genetic variation is _________________.
D) genetic drift
E) sexual reproduction
45. The force that leads to biological change in a population over time is ___________________.
(a) genetic drift
(c) natural selection
(d) gene flow
(e) all of the above
46. A tall pea plant with genotype DD can produce what type of gametes?
(a) only D
(b) only d
(c) 50% D, 50% d
(d) 75% D, 25% d
(e) 25% D, 75% d
47. The end result of mitosis is that the chromosome number _________.
(d) is cut in half
(e) stays the same
48. What is the correct order of energy flow through an ecosystem?
(a) from the decomposers to the consumers to the producers
(b) from the producers to the decomposers to the consumers
(c) from the consumers to the producers to the decomposers
(d) from the producers to the consumers to the decomposers
(e) from the consumers to the decomposers to the producers
49. A network of interactions that involves the cycling of materials and the flow of energy between a community and its physical environment is which of the following?
50. The end result of meiosis is that the chromosome number ________________.
(d) is cut in half
(e) remains the same