1. The penitentiary concept was originally put into wide practice in A. England. C. Milan. B. the United States. D. Wales. 2. The decision about which institution in a jurisdiction an offender will go to begin his or her term of incarceration is made at the A. regional office of the BOP. B. community corrections and detention division. C. BOP central office in Washington, D.C. D. classification facility. 3. One of the criticisms waged against cocorrectional facilities is that A. women prisoners are offered few, if any, economic or educational advantages. B. male prisoners are not supervised efficiently, putting women at risk. C. pseudofamilies established by the women are negatively affected. D. the prison normalizes the environment by integrating the sexes in the daytime. 4. What percentage of state prison inmates report having some kind of mental problem? A. 15 percent C. 43 percent B. 24 percent D. 56 percent 5. Homosexual activity in women’s institutions is based on A. the predominance of homosexual women in prison. B. affection. C. dominance. D. pseudofamily roles. 6. If a probationer violates the terms of his or her probation, he or she may be subject to A. mandatory jail time. C. revocation. B. restitution. D. community service. 7. Money penalties keyed to an offender’s net daily income are called A. damages. C. day fines. B. fines. D. forfeitures. 8. One kind of community correctional facility is a A. halfway house. C. work camp. B. minimum-security prison. D. jail. 9. Who conducts the presentence investigation? A. Probation agency C. Defendant’s lawyer B. Parole officer D. Treatment supervisor 10. _______ was credited with the idea that people should know precisely what punishment was prescribed for specific offenses and that the severity of that punishment should fit the crime. A. William Penn C. XXXXX XXXXX B. Graeme Newman D. Cesare Beccaria 11. In what case did the U.S. Supreme Court rule that censorship of a prisoner’s mail could happen only during certain specific situations? A. Cooper v. Pate C. Procunier v. Martinez B. Johnson v. Avery D. O’Lone v. Estate of Shabazz 12. Offenders who are sentenced to two years of _______ must pass through a series of phases that become progressively less restrictive. A. minimum security imprisonment C. shock probation B. traditional probation D. intensive-supervision probation 13. One of the criticisms of assigning first-time nonviolent white-collar offenders to federal halfway houses instead of prisons was A. it discouraged real rehabilitation. B. it allowed wealthy offenders to circumvent sentencing guidelines. C. communities were up in arms about having halfway houses in their neighborhoods. D. 40 percent of the halfway house residents failed to complete their programs successfully. 14. If someone has been sentenced to nonsecure community corrections, then that person is A. on residential probation. B. under house arrest. C. under intensive probation supervision. D. in prison. 15. Clemmer identified the process of assimilation of a new inmate into the existing prison culture as A. the importation model. C. prisonization. B. institutionalization. D. subculture shock. 16. Which of the following punishments is considered an intermediate sanction? A. Probation C. Suspended sentence B. Home confinement D. Incarceration 17. Prerelease programs that allow inmates to participate in furloughs in order to search for a job have been shown to A. have no effect on recidivism rates. B. reduce the risks to public safety after release. C. decrease the likelihood that an inmate will return to drug and alcohol abuse. D. increase the risks to public safety. 18. The median educational level of both federal and state inmates is A. 12 years. C. some high school. B. eighth grade. D. sixth grade 19. Which of the following typically lasts 90–180 days? A. A suspended sentence C. Shock incarceration B. Probation D. Parole 20. Most regard John Augustus as the contemporary originator of A. parole. C. intermediate punishment. B. suspended sentences. D. probation. 1. What case set the age of 18 as the minimum for the application of the death penalty? A. In re Winship B. McKeiver v. Pennsylvania C. In re Gault D. Roper v. Simmons 2. Evidence favorable to the accused that must be provided by the prosecutor to the defense attorney is called A. ex post facto. C. discovery. B. nolle prosequi. D. exculpatory. 3. Which of the following is referred to as the “court of last resort”? A. The U.S. Supreme Court B. The U.S. Superior Court C. The U.S. District Court D. The Circuit Court of Appeals 4. Most state supreme courts are made up of _______ judges. A. four C. seven B. five D. nine 5. Selecting judges according to the Missouri Plan means judges are nominated, then A. appointed, and finally subject to election. B. appointed. C. elected. D. recommended by the governor for election.
6. The court’s power to hear a particular type of case comes from its _______ jurisdiction.A. special C. appellateB. subject matter D. original7. _______ are far more common than the formal trial process.A. Acquittals C. Pretrial convictionB. Appeals D. Plea negotiations/bargaining8. If prosecution fails to meet its burden of proof, then defense counsel can ask for a/anA. new trial. C. directed verdict.B. appeal. D. concurrence.
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1. Which of the following sentences contains one or morestrong, active verbs?A. Having been away in London for two years, Conrad washappy to see Denise.B. The phone directory was hastily searched by Conrad.C. Conrad trembled with anxiety and anticipation as hepressed Denise’s doorbell.D. It was believed by some that Conrad’s father had been awar hero.2. Which of the following is a simple sentence?A. Karen and David arrived at the airport at 3:35 P.M. andtook a taxi to their hotel.B. I went to the airport, but I was too late to meet them.C. When I realized I was too late, I called David’s cellphone and made arrangements to meet them in town.D. I got to the airport late because the traffic wasso terrible.
3. In which of the following sentences do you find a comma or commas used correctly?A. After a fire at their home, Carlie and her mother rented a house in Glendale,Arizona from November 14, 2007 to January 28, 2008.B. William of Orange, arrived in England in 1688, to claim the English throne fromJames II.C. Claire’s plum pudding was mainly distinctive, for its absence of plums.D. Christopher Wren, a contemporary of Isaac Newton and John Locke, was thearchitect of St. Paul’s Cathedral.4. Which of the following sentences is without any surface errors?A. I reluctently gave the hampster to my cousin because I was afraid Teddy, my cat,would attack it.B. Mr. Campbell gave copies of his novel to Ruth and me.C. The town is located near just a few miles from lake Ontario.D. It’s up to Georgia and I who drives the car, whether XXXXX XXXXXkes it or not.5. In the process of revision, your main objective is toA. demonstrate correct grammar.B. establish proper tone.C. clarify your ideas.D. explain your essay’s purposes.6. Choosing a good reviewer for your writing means finding someone whoA. will concentrate on your ideas and how well you support them.B. is a close friend and will give you a positive review.C. knows everything about writing and will find every mistake.D. concentrates on correcting your spelling and grammar errors.7. A judicial decision handed down in court uses the _______ level of diction.A. informal C. legalB. popular D. formal8. Which of the following sentences uses a coordinating conjunction in acompound sentence?A. We fired our old housekeeper, who we thought had stolen Grandma’s rings;we later regretted it.B. The budget payment is much higher than we anticipated, but the price of heatingoil has skyrocketed this year.C. Out in the yard, the children shouted loudly and threw silly insults at each other.D. My aunt, who usually behaves like a queen, was suddenly asking—no, begging—for help.
9. Which of the following sentences uses parallelism effectively?A. The large plant-eating dinosaurs were quite slow, rather stupid, andextremely hungry.B. The Red Sox fans screamed, yelled, and were applauding wildly.C. The report was good because it was factual and offered many details.D. Laura spent all her time gardening and arranging flowers, when she wasn’t in ashoe store to shop.10. Which of the following is a good rule to follow when proofreading an essay?A. Scan the essay twice, once for organization and once for surface errors.B. Read the essay aloud to hear where words are missing or awkward phrasing orgrammatical errors occur.C. Use the computer’s spell-check and grammar-check functions to be sure you catchany errors.D. Ask your best friend to critique your essay.11. As you’re revising an essay, you write down several sentences to describe yourintended readers. Why?A. To see if your essay is directed toward its intended audienceB. To ensure that you’re instructing your audience adequatelyC. To make sure you’re writing what you know, not what you believeD. To ensure that your essay will entertain the audience12. An evaluation tool using questions and answers that lead to effective strategies iscalled a/anA. thesis. C. graphic organizer.B. outline. D. flowchart.13. Which of the following sentences contains a dependent clause?A. The red sports car that was parked under the tree belongs to Alan.B. Kicking and leaping, the three deer behaved like rambunctious rabbits.C. Jared eagerly climbed into the boxing ring; he was on his back and out for thecount in less than ten seconds.D. Please clear the table and wash the dishes.14. Which sentence should be edited to eliminate its cliché?A. The family was immensely relieved when Great-Aunt Martha’s condition progressedfrom “critical” to “it looks like she’ll live another 10 years.”B. I wanted to hire Dave, but a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.C. The texture of the burlap was a cross between woven straw and a three-day beard.D. Striding toward the barn in her red coverall and bucket hat, Gloria—tall and round—gave the impression of a charging silo.
15. Which statement is true about sentence lengths in a written piece?A. Short sentences tend to move ideas quickly.B. In spite of their name, compound-complex sentences are usually shorter thancompound or complex sentences.C. Regardless of the sentence type, the audience tends to read at its own pace.D. Varying sentence type has no appreciable effect on relative sentence length.16. While reviewing an essay, what would be your main purpose in applying the questionsWho? What? When? Where? Why?A. To clarify your topic sentencesB. To organize your evidenceC. To compare your thesis statement with your conclusionD. To be sure your evidence provides sufficient detail17. A student who regularly tracks her mistakes in spelling, verb forms, and parallelismis probablyA. keeping an error log.B. using a flowchart.C. analyzing her essays’ organization.D. focusing on her learning style.18. A _______ can be used for both organizing and revising an essay.A. flowchart C. topic sentenceB. graphic organizer D. verbal sketch19. Nathan argues that each paragraph in a narrative should support the author’s thesis.Nan says that paragraphs in a narrative should illuminate some part of the action.Which one is correct?A. Both Nathan and Nan are correct.B. Neither Nathan nor Nan is correct.C. Only Nan is correct.D. Only Nathan is correct.20. In which sentence does the underlined word have a negative connotation?A. Jenna’s ethnic background gave her an exotic look.B. Jack, who is the most outspoken member of the group, led the opposition to thenew rule.C. Although she had worked hard in high school, Ruth found the college courseschallenging.D. Matthew was a scrawny kid, but he grew up strong.
21. Which of the following sentences uses concrete language?A. Jerry saw that the glass was really dirty.B. When I saw Susan she was reading a book.C. Carl’s Labrador retriever eagerly chases tennis balls.D. I met Cathy at a store on a street near the bridge.22. Which of the following sentences contains an error in subject-verb agreement?A. Kristy, Molly, and Kate attend the same university and ride the bus together.B. Each of the 14 groups are going to contribute an item to the auction.C. Which one of these shirts is your favorite?D. Either Dennis or Susan is going to pick you up.23. Which of the following sentences contains a redundancy?A. Steve admired the partially completed stadium.B. Chris had trouble working up even mild enthusiasm for Mike’s plan.C. At no time did Tony indicate a willingness to admit defeat.D. Emily’s sister gave birth to a pair of twins.24. Spotting errors as you proofread is easier if youA. use a clean printed copy each time.B. reassess your marked-up copy.C. hand write your essay.D. read your work from the computer screen.25. What is the sequence of components in the following sentence?“Listless and depressed by vistas of snow and gray skies, Dieter left the cabin andwalked toward the frozen pond.”A. Subject, verb, modifierB. Modifier, subject, verbC. Subject, modifier, verbD. Modifier, subject, modifier, verb26. To compose strong, compelling sentences, avoid usingA. clauses as modifiers. C. forms of the verb to be.B. short, simple sentences. D. dependent clauses.27. Which of the following is a compound sentence?A. Since Viceroy butterflies migrate over very great distances, tracking them is achallenge to entomologists.B. Butterflies and hummingbirds feed on the nectar of flowering plants.C. Because fraud is so common in some corporations, regulatory agenciesare overworked.D. Corporate fraud is becoming more common in the United States, and the civilcourts are being stretched to their limits.
28. Which of the following sentences correctly uses a transitional word or phrase?A. Sadly, Mark broke his leg shortly after starting the program.B. Because first impressions are so important, Addison shaved off his beard.C. For example, Kara took up needlepoint on the advice of her counselor.D. Until the floodwaters receded, the bridge couldn’t be inspected.29. A passive verb is the better choice if you wish toA. emphasize the subject. C. establish a casual tone.B. deemphasize the subject. D. establish a formal tone.30. During revision, you’ll scan your paper for _______ words and replace them withconcrete words or phrases.A. figurative C. informalB. general D. formal