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Hi. I need help with 4 Cultural Psychology questions. I seem

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Hi. I need help with 4 Cultural Psychology questions. I seem to be struggling with them and would really appreciate some help!

1. Claude Levi-Strauss is a (cognitive) structuralist. Use the Erikson article on the Lakota Sioux as a source of examples and explanations in this question.

Should structuralism could be considered just another name for “customs” in the Erikson article. Is this true? Explain and then provide three quotes from the Erikson chapter which supports your point.

2. In the early 1940’s, MacGregor studied the same population as Erikson had done five years earlier. However, these two researchers did not use the same field methodology. Explain each researcher’s method and provide one illustration (by quoting from the appropriate text) how the difference in method produced its own unique finding.

3. G. Stanley Hall and Margaret Mead had very different views about adolescent 'sturm and drang'. In their approaches, Hall and Mead viewed adolescent behavior as mainly as either a product of cultural socialization or primarily a result of human development. Explain.

4. In this question, we are looking at the Hofstede model.
a. What is the primary independent (or predictive) variable Hofstede utilizes in building his model? Explain and provide one illustration.
b. Looking at the results, what is primary dependent variable? Explain and provide one illustration.
c. Explain how Hofstede (and others) have applied his model to [1] cultures, [2] organizations, and [3] individuals.
Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Homework
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Customer: replied 2 years ago.

Yes I am still waiting for an answer. Thank you for your help. I would like to receive help before Friday.

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Customer: replied 2 years ago.

Thank you. I didn't receive any help the last time I posted a question on here. I have seen the help you provide to other people and would sincerely XXXXX XXXXX help. I am really struggling with this subject. Looking forward to hearing from an expert who can help me with this.

Thanks again

Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

Hello do you need assistance? Before I can help you please tell me the date and time the assignment is due. Also include any other information that would help to complete the assignment.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.

Chris,

Thank you for replying to me. I would like it to be finished Friday so I have time to review, process, and understand everything and I'm on call this weekend, but it is not due until Sunday at midnight. You'll notice in the questions they refer to different articles and readings such as Erikson's article on the Lakota Sioux or the different methodologies of Erikson and MacGregor. Thank you so much for helping me. Let me know if this will work out for you. :)

Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

I'll get back with you before the end of today.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Thank you. I am anxiously awaiting. :)
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

Yes, I'll help you with your assignment.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Awesome! Thank you. when can it be done?
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

I've completed questions 1 and 2. Three and four will be completed after 5 pm today.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Thank you so much! That sounds great! I'll check back about 6pm.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

Here's the assignment, if you want it locked after accepting it I'll contact customer service for you.



1. Claude Levi-Strauss is a (cognitive)
structuralist. Use the Erikson article on the Lakota Sioux as a source of
examples and explanations in this question.



Should structuralism could be considered just another name for "customs" in the
Erikson article. Is this true? Explain and then provide three quotes from the
Erikson chapter which supports your point.






Customs are the way
people have lived their lives for years (Farlex, 2012). Each new
generation is taught the culture and social behaviors of the generations before
them. This includes family units and the
tribe itself. Erikson points out some of
the traditions found in the Lakota Sioux tribe.
Before looking at that let's examine cognitive structuralism and why
it's important. Cognitive structuralism
wants to know the steps a person takes during the thought process. How the person comes to the conclusion of a
situation? It is similar to the steps
take in order to solve a math problem or even using the scientific method.



Structuralism
can be used as another name for customs.
A person's thought processes like their customs can be changed under
certain circumstances (AsiaEUniversity, 2012).
In this case the Lakota Sioux tribe were forced to change their customs
and their thought processes. These
individuals were once a proud and independent people, who hunted for themselves
and basically took care of their own.
Now they are considered weak and extremely dependent on the help of
outsiders namely the white man. If they
had not changed their customs/thought processes they would have all died? "Thus, step for step, the Sioux has been denied the bases for a collective
identity formation and with it that reservoir of collective integrity from
which the individual must derive his stature as a social being. Fear of famine
has led the Sioux to surrender communal functions to the feeding conqueror (Erikson, 1963)."
"During all this time, only one white type stirred the Indian's
imagination to the point of influencing his dress, his bearing, his customs,
and his children's play: the cowboy (Erikson, 1963)." "Here
8,ooo members of the Oglala subtribe of the Sioux, or Dakota, live on land
allotted to them by the government. When the Indians settled on this
reservation, they turned their political and economic independence over to the
United States government on condition that the government keep all whites from
hunting and settling in their territory (Erikson, 1963)."



AsiaEUniversity. (2012). Learning theories - Cognitive
Learning Theories. Retrieved from peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdf



Erikson,
E. H. (1963). Hunters across the prairie.
Childhood and Society (2nd ed) (pp. 114-165). New York, NY: W.W.
Norton & Company.



Farlex.
(2012). Custom. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/customs



2. In the early 1940's, MacGregor studied the
same population as Erikson had done five years earlier. However, these two
researchers did not use the same field methodology. Explain each researcher's
method and provide one illustration (by quoting from the appropriate text) how
the difference in method produced its own unique finding.





The
historical life of the Lakota Sioux tribe was described in detail to the
readers by Erikson. It was like reading
a literature review of events that caused these people to become lower in
stature than their warrior ancestors.
There was a strong theme centered on the Sioux's way of training their
children for the future. Erikson made it
seem that we could not understand the true plight of the Sioux unless we delved
deeply into that subject. In the end he
proved his point that the Sioux child training was vital to the survival of the
Sioux as a people. "Sioux child training forms a
firm basis for this system of centrifugally by establishing a lasting center of
trust, namely the nursing mother, and then by handling the matter of teething, of
infantile rage, and of muscular aggression in such a way that the greatest
possible degree of ferocity is provoked, channelized socially, and finally
released against prey and enemy (Erikson, 1963)."



MacGregor on the other hand seemed to be more hands on
with his study. The article described
individuals working with him who were trained in both Indian and white child
cultures (Erikson, 1963).
Additional differences included the locations where the children were
viewed such as home and school. The
timeframe also seemed to be of importance, one year. Ultimately MacGregor was showing that white
society even though it means well is holding back the progress of the Sioux (Erikson,
1963). By replacing the old traditions of the Sioux
with the new traditions of the whites, they are being taught a life of personal
culture rejection and dominant culture assimilation. "Child-training
systems change to advantage only where the universal trend toward larger
cultural entities is sustained (Erikson, 1963)."





Erikson,
E. H. (1963). Hunters across the prairie.
Childhood and Society (2nd ed) (pp. 114-165). New York, NY: W.W.
Norton & Company.





3. G. Stanley Hall and Margaret Mead had very different views about adolescent
'sturm and drang'. In their approaches, Hall and Mead viewed adolescent
behavior as mainly as either a product of cultural socialization or primarily a
result of human development. Explain.





Before
we can understand the nature of the adolescent as seen by Hall and Mead, we
need to understand the nature of ‘sturm and drang'. These are two German words that mean storm
and stress which seem appropriate for the road to maturity (King, 2004).
Cultural socialization can be seen as the framework that shapes the life
of its citizens. A child begins to know
his or her place in the world through the family unit first, then progressing
to peers and then ultimately to society at large. There are two different roles that children
and adolescences face, family position and gender roles. Children are the low man on the totem pole
which means they have not authority and many responsibilities.



In terms of development children go
through different levels of understanding and also physical awareness. Hall talked about different stages that human
beings face. Children eight and under do
not have the ability to ponder situations and create complex solutions. Simple solutions are as follows my diaper is
wet and I will cry. As we grow older our
reasoning skills sharpen and our sexuality rises. Heightened sexual experiences or physical experiences
can interfere with an adolescent's ability to form a solid moral foundation. Mead came to the conclusion that children and
adolescents should be allowed to develop independently parental control and
society at large (King, 2004). Seeds
can't grow in the shadow of the oak tree, they need open space and sunlight.





King, R.M. (2004, February). Adolescence-overview,
history, theories. Retrieved from http://www.psyking.net/id183.htm





4. In this question, we are looking at the Hofstede model.

a. What is the primary independent (or predictive) variable Hofstede utilizes
in building his model? Explain and provide one illustration.





IBM employees were the only subjects used in the study
therefore they are the primary variable (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).





b. Looking at the results, what is primary dependent variable? Explain and
provide one illustration.





Various work locations for IBM constitutes the primary
dependent variable (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).





c. Explain how Hofstede (and others) have applied his model to [1] cultures,
[2] organizations, and [3] individuals.





1.
Power/Distance (PD)
- This refers to the degree of
inequality that exists - and is accepted - among people with and without power.
A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of power
and people understand "their place" in the system. Low PD means that
power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view
themselves as equals (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).



Application:
According to Hofstede's model, in a
high PD country like Malaysia (104), you would probably send reports only to
top management and have closed door meetings where only a select few, powerful
leaders were in attendance (Mind Tools
Ltd., 2010).



2.
Individualism (IDV)
- This refers to the strength of
the ties people have to others within the community. A high IDV score indicates
a loose connection with people. In countries with a high IDV score there is a
lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility, beyond family
and perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low IDV score would have
strong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of loyalty and respect
for members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people take more
responsibility for each other's well being (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).



Application:
Hofstede's analysis suggests that in the Central American countries of Panama
and Guatemala where the IDV scores are very low (11 and 6, respectively), a
marketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community or that tied into
a popular political movement would likely be understood and well-received (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).



3.
Masculinity (MAS)
- This refers to how much a society
sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are
found in countries where men are expected to be tough, to be the provider, to
be assertive and to be strong. If women work outside the home, they have
separate professions from men. Low MAS scores do not reverse the gender roles.
In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men
working together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to be
sensitive and women can work hard for professional success (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).



Application:
Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95 whereas Sweden has the lowest
measured value (5). According to Hofstede's analysis, if you were to open an
office in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a male
employee to lead the team and had a strong male contingent on the team. In
Sweden, on the other hand, you would aim for a team that was balanced in terms
of skill rather than gender (Mind Tools Ltd.,
2010).



4.
Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI)

- This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain
or unknown situations. High UAI-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situations
whenever possible. They are governed by rules and order and they seek a
collective "truth". Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novel
events and values differences. There are very few rules and people are
encouraged to discover their own truth (Mind
Tools Ltd., 2010).



Application:
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions imply that when discussing a project with people
in Belgium, whose country scored a 94 on the UAI scale, you should investigate
the various options and then present a limited number of choices, but have very
detailed information available on your contingency and risk plans (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
(Note that there will be cultural differences between French and Dutch speakers
in Belgium!)



5.
Long Term Orientation (LTO)
- This
refers to how much society values long-standing - as opposed to short term -
traditions and values. This is the fifth dimension that Hofstede added in the
1990s after finding that Asian countries with a strong link to Confucian
philosophy acted differently from western cultures. In countries with a high
LTO score, delivering on social obligations and avoiding "loss of
face" are considered very important (Mind
Tools Ltd., 2010).



Application:
According to Hofstede's analysis, people in the United States and United
Kingdom have low LTO scores. This suggests that you can pretty much expect anything
in this culture in terms of creative expression and novel ideas. The model
implies that people in the US and UK don't value tradition as much as many
others, and are therefore likely to be willing to help you execute the most
innovative plans as long as they get to participate fully (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010). (This
may be surprising to people in the UK, with its associations of tradition!)



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