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Thank you for replying to me. I would like it to be finished Friday so I have time to review, process, and understand everything and I'm on call this weekend, but it is not due until Sunday at midnight. You'll notice in the questions they refer to different articles and readings such as Erikson's article on the Lakota Sioux or the different methodologies of Erikson and MacGregor. Thank you so much for helping me. Let me know if this will work out for you. :)
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Yes, I'll help you with your assignment.
I've completed questions 1 and 2. Three and four will be completed after 5 pm today.
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1. Claude Levi-Strauss is a (cognitive)structuralist. Use the Erikson article on the Lakota Sioux as a source ofexamples and explanations in this question. Should structuralism could be considered just another name for "customs" in theErikson article. Is this true? Explain and then provide three quotes from theErikson chapter which supports your point.
Customs are the waypeople have lived their lives for years (Farlex, 2012). Each newgeneration is taught the culture and social behaviors of the generations beforethem. This includes family units and thetribe itself. Erikson points out some ofthe traditions found in the Lakota Sioux tribe. Before looking at that let's examine cognitive structuralism and whyit's important. Cognitive structuralismwants to know the steps a person takes during the thought process. How the person comes to the conclusion of asituation? It is similar to the stepstake in order to solve a math problem or even using the scientific method.
Structuralismcan be used as another name for customs. A person's thought processes like their customs can be changed undercertain circumstances (AsiaEUniversity, 2012). In this case the Lakota Sioux tribe were forced to change their customsand their thought processes. Theseindividuals were once a proud and independent people, who hunted for themselvesand basically took care of their own. Now they are considered weak and extremely dependent on the help ofoutsiders namely the white man. If theyhad not changed their customs/thought processes they would have all died? "Thus, step for step, the Sioux has been denied the bases for a collectiveidentity formation and with it that reservoir of collective integrity fromwhich the individual must derive his stature as a social being. Fear of faminehas led the Sioux to surrender communal functions to the feeding conqueror (Erikson, 1963).""During all this time, only one white type stirred the Indian'simagination to the point of influencing his dress, his bearing, his customs,and his children's play: the cowboy (Erikson, 1963)." "Here8,ooo members of the Oglala subtribe of the Sioux, or Dakota, live on landallotted to them by the government. When the Indians settled on thisreservation, they turned their political and economic independence over to theUnited States government on condition that the government keep all whites fromhunting and settling in their territory (Erikson, 1963)."
AsiaEUniversity. (2012). Learning theories - CognitiveLearning Theories. Retrieved from peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdf
Erikson,E. H. (1963). Hunters across the prairie. Childhood and Society (2nd ed) (pp. 114-165). New York, NY: W.W.Norton & Company.
Farlex.(2012). Custom. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/customs
2. In the early 1940's, MacGregor studied thesame population as Erikson had done five years earlier. However, these tworesearchers did not use the same field methodology. Explain each researcher'smethod and provide one illustration (by quoting from the appropriate text) howthe difference in method produced its own unique finding.
Thehistorical life of the Lakota Sioux tribe was described in detail to thereaders by Erikson. It was like readinga literature review of events that caused these people to become lower instature than their warrior ancestors. There was a strong theme centered on the Sioux's way of training theirchildren for the future. Erikson made itseem that we could not understand the true plight of the Sioux unless we delveddeeply into that subject. In the end heproved his point that the Sioux child training was vital to the survival of theSioux as a people. "Sioux child training forms afirm basis for this system of centrifugally by establishing a lasting center oftrust, namely the nursing mother, and then by handling the matter of teething, ofinfantile rage, and of muscular aggression in such a way that the greatestpossible degree of ferocity is provoked, channelized socially, and finallyreleased against prey and enemy (Erikson, 1963)."
MacGregor on the other hand seemed to be more hands onwith his study. The article describedindividuals working with him who were trained in both Indian and white childcultures (Erikson, 1963). Additional differences included the locations where the children wereviewed such as home and school. Thetimeframe also seemed to be of importance, one year. Ultimately MacGregor was showing that whitesociety even though it means well is holding back the progress of the Sioux (Erikson,1963). By replacing the old traditions of the Siouxwith the new traditions of the whites, they are being taught a life of personalculture rejection and dominant culture assimilation. "Child-trainingsystems change to advantage only where the universal trend toward largercultural entities is sustained (Erikson, 1963)."
3. G. Stanley Hall and Margaret Mead had very different views about adolescent'sturm and drang'. In their approaches, Hall and Mead viewed adolescentbehavior as mainly as either a product of cultural socialization or primarily aresult of human development. Explain.
Beforewe can understand the nature of the adolescent as seen by Hall and Mead, weneed to understand the nature of ‘sturm and drang'. These are two German words that mean stormand stress which seem appropriate for the road to maturity (King, 2004). Cultural socialization can be seen as the framework that shapes the lifeof its citizens. A child begins to knowhis or her place in the world through the family unit first, then progressingto peers and then ultimately to society at large. There are two different roles that childrenand adolescences face, family position and gender roles. Children are the low man on the totem polewhich means they have not authority and many responsibilities.
In terms of development children gothrough different levels of understanding and also physical awareness. Hall talked about different stages that humanbeings face. Children eight and under donot have the ability to ponder situations and create complex solutions. Simple solutions are as follows my diaper iswet and I will cry. As we grow older ourreasoning skills sharpen and our sexuality rises. Heightened sexual experiences or physical experiencescan interfere with an adolescent's ability to form a solid moral foundation. Mead came to the conclusion that children andadolescents should be allowed to develop independently parental control andsociety at large (King, 2004). Seedscan't grow in the shadow of the oak tree, they need open space and sunlight.
King, R.M. (2004, February). Adolescence-overview,history, theories. Retrieved from http://www.psyking.net/id183.htm
4. In this question, we are looking at the Hofstede model. a. What is the primary independent (or predictive) variable Hofstede utilizesin building his model? Explain and provide one illustration.
IBM employees were the only subjects used in the studytherefore they are the primary variable (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
b. Looking at the results, what is primary dependent variable? Explain andprovide one illustration.
Various work locations for IBM constitutes the primarydependent variable (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
c. Explain how Hofstede (and others) have applied his model to  cultures, organizations, and  individuals.
1.Power/Distance (PD) - This refers to the degree ofinequality that exists - and is accepted - among people with and without power.A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of powerand people understand "their place" in the system. Low PD means thatpower is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members viewthemselves as equals (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
Application:According to Hofstede's model, in ahigh PD country like Malaysia (104), you would probably send reports only totop management and have closed door meetings where only a select few, powerfulleaders were in attendance (Mind ToolsLtd., 2010).
2.Individualism (IDV) - This refers to the strength ofthe ties people have to others within the community. A high IDV score indicatesa loose connection with people. In countries with a high IDV score there is alack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility, beyond familyand perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low IDV score would havestrong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of loyalty and respectfor members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people take moreresponsibility for each other's well being (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
Application:Hofstede's analysis suggests that in the Central American countries of Panamaand Guatemala where the IDV scores are very low (11 and 6, respectively), amarketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community or that tied intoa popular political movement would likely be understood and well-received (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
3.Masculinity (MAS) - This refers to how much a societysticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores arefound in countries where men are expected to be tough, to be the provider, tobe assertive and to be strong. If women work outside the home, they haveseparate professions from men. Low MAS scores do not reverse the gender roles.In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and menworking together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to besensitive and women can work hard for professional success (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).
Application:Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95 whereas Sweden has the lowestmeasured value (5). According to Hofstede's analysis, if you were to open anoffice in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a maleemployee to lead the team and had a strong male contingent on the team. InSweden, on the other hand, you would aim for a team that was balanced in termsof skill rather than gender (Mind Tools Ltd.,2010).
4.Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI)- This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertainor unknown situations. High UAI-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situationswhenever possible. They are governed by rules and order and they seek acollective "truth". Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novelevents and values differences. There are very few rules and people areencouraged to discover their own truth (MindTools Ltd., 2010).
Application:Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions imply that when discussing a project with peoplein Belgium, whose country scored a 94 on the UAI scale, you should investigatethe various options and then present a limited number of choices, but have verydetailed information available on your contingency and risk plans (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010).(Note that there will be cultural differences between French and Dutch speakersin Belgium!)
5.Long Term Orientation (LTO) - Thisrefers to how much society values long-standing - as opposed to short term -traditions and values. This is the fifth dimension that Hofstede added in the1990s after finding that Asian countries with a strong link to Confucianphilosophy acted differently from western cultures. In countries with a highLTO score, delivering on social obligations and avoiding "loss offace" are considered very important (MindTools Ltd., 2010).
Application:According to Hofstede's analysis, people in the United States and UnitedKingdom have low LTO scores. This suggests that you can pretty much expect anythingin this culture in terms of creative expression and novel ideas. The modelimplies that people in the US and UK don't value tradition as much as manyothers, and are therefore likely to be willing to help you execute the mostinnovative plans as long as they get to participate fully (Mind Tools Ltd., 2010). (Thismay be surprising to people in the UK, with its associations of tradition!)
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