Hello, and thanks for the question.
1. Ordinal -- Finishing order in horse race. Qualitative measure. Ordinal measurement places items in ranked order where the order matters but not the difference between values.
Continuous -- Time difference for two runners. Quantitative measure. Continuous level of measurement refers to outcomes that are continuously variable. That is, there is always a point in between, as with measurements of time where minutes can be divided into seconds, seconds into tenths of seconds, hundreds of seconds, and so forth.
Discrete -- Blades of grass on front lawn. Quantitative measure. Discrete levels of measurement refer to values that are distinct and separate, i.e., they can be counted (1,2,3...).
Nominal -- Types of trees. Qualitative. Level of measurement that merely categorizes variables. Nominal data can be counted, but not ordered or measured.
2. This would be an example of convenience sampling. This is where subjects are drawn at the convenience of the reseacher. There is no attempt made to make sure that the sample is representative of a population as a whole. Therefore, the results may probably be biased in some way, such as representing the views of an inordinate percentage of 24-36-year-old, white males (or whatever the primary demographic characteristics of the USA Today readers happen to be.) The survey would be non-scientific and primarily of an entertaining factoid nature..
Hope this helps!
Victor was robbed and beaten by a man wearing a rubber