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Chris M.
Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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Jerry is concerned about whether his independent variable is

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Jerry is concerned about whether his independent variable is the only possible explanation for the results of his experiment. Jerry is concerned about
a.
external validity.
b.
internal validity.
c.
reliability.
d.
convenience sampling.

Bonnie conducts an experiment to examine the effects of media on college women's body image. She gives a sample of women a body image questionnaire, then a week later exposes them to magazine photos of very thin models. Then a week later she administers a posttest designed to assess any changes in body image. Right before the posttest, a famous supermodel is reported to be suffering from anorexia; the story is on the cover of several magazines. Bonnie is concerned that the women's responses on the posttest may be influenced by the supermodel story instead of her independent variable. This example illustrates the potential problem of
a.
mortality.
b.
statistical regression.
c.
selection.
d.
history.

Stanley conducts a study in which he assesses teasing in a sample of first-graders during the first week of school and again three months later. Because the study is longitudinal, Stanley has to worry about which of the following threats to internal validity?
a.
selection
b.
temporal generalization
c.
demand characteristics
d.
maturation

Delia gives students a questionnaire on attitudes toward affirmative action. Then she shows her participants a movie on affirmative action. Then the participants fill out the same questionnaire again. Which of the following problems is most likely in Delia's study?
a.
reactive measures
b.
selection
c.
nonreactive measures
d.
Type III error

The "Sports Illustrated jinx" refers to the fact that athletes who appear on the cover of the magazine often then experience a decline in performance afterwards. Some researchers attribute this to the fact that athletes who are placed on the cover are those who are at the top of their game, and performance naturally reverts back to a more normal level after time. These researchers are referring to the problem of
a.
statistical regression.
b.
mortality.
c.
selection.
d.
instrumentation.

Andy conducts a study to improve reading scores in elementary schools. He obtains a sample of second-graders whose reading level was very much below average. He enrolls these students in a reading program and then measures their reading level six months later. Reading levels were significantly higher after the program than before. Because Andy selected participants on the basis of their extreme scores, he should be concerned about
a.
diffusion of treatment.
b.
statistical regression.
c.
temporal generalization.
d.
instrumentation.

Sasha conducts a study to compare self-esteem in American versus Swedish school children. She assesses the children at ages five, seven, and nine. Which of the following interactions is most likely?
a.
Selection-history interaction
b.
Selection-instrumentation interaction
c.
Selection-regression interaction
d.
Selection-generalization interaction

Angela conducts a study demonstrating that active learning strategies in a research methods course produce greater understanding of the material than passive learning strategies. She hopes that her results will apply to other research methods courses outside of the one she studied. Angela is concerned with
a.
demand characteristics.
b.
temporal generalization.
c.
environmental generalization.
d.
statistical regression.

Frances wishes to study the effects of violent videogames on children's levels of aggression. As children come to the lab for the study, she flips a coin. If it turns up heads, the child plays a violent videogame. If it turns up tails, the child plays a nonviolent videogame. Frances has used the technique of
a.
random selection.
b.
random assignment.
c.
creating matched pairs.
d.
correlated assignment.

Jamonn conducts a study in which one group of participants is randomly assigned to be in a 70-degree room, and another group of participants is randomly assigned to be in a 90-degree room. Jamonn will make a
a.
within-subjects comparison.
b.
matched-subjects comparison.
c.
between-subjects comparison.
d.
correlated-subjects comparison
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