1) An operational definition is:
A. a speculative or theoretical statement about the relationship between two variables.
B. the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
C. an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept.
D. a relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
2) In the article "The Saints and the Rough Necks", the middle & upper-middle class 'Saints' broke more laws and engaged in more serious transgressons than the working class ' Roughnecks'.... but the Saints were not seen as a gang or as designated deviants by the school authorities or the police. This example supports a combination of both labeling theory and conflict theory .
3) Which sociological theory is especially interested in ascribed statuses that confer privileges in a dominant group or reflect a person’s membership in a subordinate group?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. symbolic interactionist perspective
4) The Thomas Theorem states that
roles are only as important as the statuses to which they are attached
only physical reality is objective
situations defined as real become real in their consequences.
the basis of humanity is built on the dual existence of creativity and conformity.
5) Negative stereotypes are labels that often benefit the group using them while diminishing the abilities of the target group. This application is accounted for by the following theory.
C. interactionist perspective
D. feminist perspective
6) According to Charles Horton Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self, individuals come to understand themselves by:
resolving their parent-child conflicts.
engaging in impression management.
adopting the image of how others view them
engaging in anticipatory socialization
7) If researchers wanted to examine the opinions of people listed in a city directory, they might call every tenth or fiftieth or hundredth name listed. This would constitute a type of:
B. control variable.
C. generalized sample
D. a type of random sample.
8) Which sociological theory would likely contend that the role of the mass media is predominantly controlled by large coorporations and therefore has an agenda...suppporting its own interests over other interests of the general population?
9) The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the:
B. independent variable.
C. dependent variable.
10) Sociologists view all common sense truisms as being incapable of being supported by empirical data.
11) The concepts of statuses and roles :
A. prevent information overload
B. make relative strangers predictable
C. are derived from structural functional theory
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
12) The basis for stating "that compared to other animals, only humans can truly experience guilt or shame" is supported by the condition that at this point in history, empirical analysis and sociological theory indicates that only humans:
A. have the capacity to learn a complex language
B. only humans have the capacity to maintain a self concept or self image
C. only humans have a mind
D. all of the above
E. Only a & b
13) Ideology is another word or concept that is equivalent to sociological theory:
14) Which is the dependent variable in the following statement? "The researchers examined the relationship between age, gender, social class and texting while driving."
Texting while driving
15) Although we have greater and varied interpretive abilities in assessing secondary emotions in other humans, when reacting to a person’s exhibition of a primary emotion this is closer to a dog reacting to another dog’s “ears pulled back” which is a sign!
16) A sociologist studies how a teacher’s attitudes toward particular students affect the latter’s performance. Students of similar abilities who are “teacher’s pets” perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as “troublemakers” perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
A. anomie theory.
B. labeling theory.
C. structural-functionalist approach.
D. differential association theory.
17) Philip Zimbardo simulated a prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards. His study ...
indicated that it is impossible to replicate a “real life” situation in a laboratory.
demonstrated the hidden influence of social roles.
Is an example of applying conflict theory to inequality.
is a demonstration of anomie
18) According to Emile Durkheim, unless intentionally risking their lives for others, people with a higher suicide rate typically experience:
more clinical depression.
less money and other resources.
weak social attachments to a community.
D. all of the above
19) The incredable ability of the Fore' toddlers to manipulate potentially dangerous objects in their world is related to their level of subsistsance. This subsitsance level is responsible for an environment where they:
A. are rarely alone without some adult or older youth nearby
B. are always in the presence of their mothers
C. are forced to learn about the world on their own
D. all of the above
20) A change in the social position of children relative to that of their parents is called:
A. horizontal social mobility.
B. intergenerational mobility
C. intragenerational mobility.
D. structural social mobility.
21) A research measure that provides consistent results is considered:
C. a theory.
22) Ethnocentrism (also in question #5) is the tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others . This feeling of superiority can encourage behavior that fosters cohensiveness in the group as well as justify why they should acquire more valued rsources in competing with other groups. Ironically, this statement could support two of the follwing theories at the same time
A & B
B & C
23) Which of the following terms do conflict theorists use when referring to the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control?
The sick role
24) The view that the media in a country is predominantly owned by large corporations or a dominant political party.. and therefore can control and filter information to the public that benefits its own interests would be a perspective supporting:
A. symbolic interaction theory.
Structure Functional theory
25) Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is a (an):
B. independent variable
C. Dependent variable
D. Random Vraiable.
26) The Zimbardo prison study, the Ash conformity study and the Milgram obediance study were similar in that they revealed latent personality charcteristics in us all.
27) Zigmund Bauman in his Chapter titled Us & Them used the term "the imaginary us" in his discussion of
A) The out-group as a mirror
Ideals we'd like to believe about our in-group but at the same time we assume they are false!
all of the above
28) There is an on-going argument in society over whether same-sex couples should have the right to get married. If that right is passed in favor of gay marriage then what will actually be changed in the larger community or culture according to Babbie's agreement system culture is:
all of the above
29) In applying a type of economic exchange theory to understanding behavior, Foa's definition of aggression as "the intention of one person or group to take away a resource from another person or group " is an example of :
A)a conceptual definition
B)an operational definition
C) a common sense definition
D) all of the above
30) In Milgram's famous obedience study, a behavioristic definition of aggression was implemented using variations of shock inflicted by one subject against another subject to measure the degree of aggression. This measure is an example of:
B) an operational definition
31) Durkeim's use of the concept of anomie in explaining variations in suicide between different groups is based on the strength or vulnerability of one's agreement system at any one time. This agreement system is especially reflected in one's
B) state of matrimony
32) The Fore' children shared a condition with Harlow's monkey's, especially the monkey’s with the cloth covered fake mothers (as opposed to the bare wire mothers with only a nipple). This common condition was profoundly expressed in one of Erikson's early stages of development.. particularly the challenge of _______ in their environment.
initiative vs. guilt
trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. shame
industriousness vs. Inferiority
33) Before his death, Marx is quoted as saying "Im am not a Marxist!" In fact, he was referring to a French poliictical party that was distorting his theory for their own benefit. This happens a great deal in history and is an example of distinguishing :
a scientific theory form a hypothesis
a scientific theory from a concept
a scientific theory from an ideology
a scientific theory from research
34) The manner or acting function of stereotypes is analogous/similar to Piaget's concept or process of assimilation!
35) If we break down the history of human subsistent levels into 60 minutes we would find that approximately human-kind were hunters and gathers for the first 58 minutes and in the last two minutes we went through horticulture & pastoralism, agriculture, industry and post industrialism. During the first 58 minutes the human population on the earth was very small. Consequently the first 58 minutes accentuated human relationships that tended to favor ____ over ______for human survival for most of our existence.
36) Along with shame & guilt, love and embarrassment were not listed as one of the six primary emotions by Professor Paul Ekman. Symbolic interaction theory might suggest that the latter two emotional experiences are connected to having a
D) All of the above
E) A & B only
37 In Lemert's labeling theory of deviance, primary deviance is considered to be temporary most of the time and others may normalize it…that is, initial rule breaking may not establish a deviant identity in the public's eye until a public official or specialist makes the label stick.
Along with labeling theory the young man who exposed himself to the mother & child in Portland may have done so because members of his peer group would have approved of his behavior. This example represents :
A) Merton Strain theory
B) Hirschi's control theory
C) Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
D) None of the above
39) The theoretical position taken in Zygmunt Bauman’s Chapter on “Self Preservation vs. Moral Duty” would best be characterized as an example of ______________.
A. Structural Functional Theory
B. Conflict Theory
C. Symbolic Interaction Theory
40) It takes at least two people to create a language!
Hello, and thanks for the question.
1. C. an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept.
2. A. True
3. C. situations defined as real become real in their consequences.
4. B. conflict perspective
5. A. functionalist perspective
6. C. adopting the image of how others view them
7. D. a type of random sample.
8. B. conflict perspective
9. C. dependent variable.
10. B. false
11. D. all of the above
12. B. only humans have the capacity to maintain a self concept or self image
13. A. True
14. C. Texting while driving
15. A. True
16. B. labeling theory.
Hope this helps!
Yes, #3 and #4 are switched. The formatting didn't turn out too well when you copied and pasted. Originally, only 16 question posted. Check over the rest and let me know if you have additional questions.
I have posted the answers to the rest of the question twice and the answers are not showing up due to a technical glitch. Let me attempt this again. No need to reply; just hold on a while for the repost.