replied 5 years ago.
due 2/5/2012 by 630pm..250 words each response..with references.
1. The purpose of this post is to summarize and examine two studies, one epidemiological experimental study and a cohort study. The cohort study dealt with the relationship between daughters of mothers with breast cancer and women responding to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. The researchers looked at daughters of mothers with breast cancer may be at increased risk for developing the disease. Their hypothesis explored characteristics of adult daughters and looked at preventive behaviors, such as physical activity, intake of fruit/vegetable, alcohol intake, smoking and mammography. Differences in this study were examined using logistic regression; they found that daughters with a history of breast cancer were more likely to receive mammography screening. There were no foreseeable differences in physical activity, BMI, or smoking.
The second study according to Mulder et al examined breast cancer and its’ association with psychosocial factors including stressful situations in everyday life, such as negative emotion, anger, anxiety, and hopelessness. Participants in this study were viewed for psychosocial parameters/factors on the survival of breast cancer. 20 to 30% of women with malignant breast tumors experience a disruption of their quality of life through loss of roles, functional abilities and problems with social relationships (Mulder, 1992). Parameters associated with better prognosis and survival would be social support including marriage which can minimize denial, depression and other emotions associated with decrease breast cancer survival. According to Mulder, stressful life events were negatively related to survival of the individual, but more research is needed to look at the importance to social support systems.
Most of the studies show some relationship between psychosocial factors and survival, but not consistent with the findings for many of the variables associated with survival and recurrence. More research would be needed regarding social support decreasing denial, depression and other emotions on survival of breast cancer.
A different study design that would be useful for this research would be to look at other variables of interests such as not just looking at the etiology of breast cancer, but also looking at links with the hormone estrogen and genes BRCA1and BRCA2. These disparities need to be taking into consideration, depending of exposure of estrogen. The researchers could have selected women to examine BRCA1 and BRCA2, with women who are at greater risk due to mutations; those genes are known as tumor suppressors.
Looking at the studies, they give comparison and efficacy to the disease, the best attack is screening and exams even in people who do not have any symptoms. The goal of screening, such as mammograms is to find possible breast cancers before symptoms arise. Individuals with cancers found during screening exams are more likely to be small and still confined to the breast. The size of the cancer and the breast, either male or female and how much is spread are important factors in helping a patient prognosis.
Wilson, D.B., Quillin, J., Bodurtha, J.N., McClish, D. (2011). Comparing Screening and Preventive Health Behaviors in Two Study Populations: Daughters of Mothers with Breast Cancer and Women Responding to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Journal of Women’s Health 20 (8) 1201-1206. doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2256.
Friedman G.D. (2004). Primer of epidemiology (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mulder, C.L., Van Der Pompe, G., Spiegel, D., Antoni, M.H., DeVries, M.J. (1992). Do Psychosocial Factors Influence the Course of Breast Cancer. Psycho-Onocology, 1: 155-167.
2.The purpose of this discussion is to summarize the two studies: one Cohort Study and one Experimental study.
The Cohort Study dealt with childhood asthmas. The main focus of this study was to use respiratory assessment from childhood into adulthood to provide better insight into risk factor for persistence, relapse of childhood asthmas and for pulmonary- function
There were significant difference in prevalence’s of childhood asthmas wheezing and atopy between 613 study for whom respiratory data available for all assessments (59 .1 percent). There were no different in the outcome in the final assessment at 26 years of age. The multidisciplinary study evaluated other aspects of health and development other than asthmas and allergy. This reduced the decision for each assessment was biased by these conditions.
The experiment study deal with the different between airway effects in asthmatic individual and symptoms. This study focus on the effect of asthmatic individual when expose to polluted air. The study was performed in exposure cambers for controlled exposure to air pollutants. There was little study done on healthy individual. This study focus on sensitive groups, such as peoples who have history of allergic and asthmatic. The study show the healthy individuals may respond with lung function changes only if they are exposed to a high dose of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, where asthmatic appear more sensitive . This study was conducted in a more control environment.
The learner compared both study , Experience Study and Cohort study. Both study was done on lung function. There was little comparison of both group. Cohort Study focus on wheezing and asthma from childhood to adulthood. This study included assessment during the life of the study to find different in the stage of development. The experimental study focus more on peoples who has asthma and allergy and their symptom to test to see how air pollution effect on one lung function.
Kerstin Sundell , Sten-Erik Bergstrom, Gunilla Hedlin , Britt-Marie Yggie, Alf Tunsater. ( 2011) Quality of life in adolescents with asthmas, during the transition period from child to adult. The Clinical Respiratory Journal 5: 4, 195-202
Koenig JQ, Covert DS, Marshall SG, vanBell G, Pierson WE. The effect of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in healthy and in asthmatic adolescent . Am. Rev Respir. Dis, 1987. 136: 1152-1157