What time tomorrow is this assignment due?
Chris, I just posted a couples more new questions. Please take over as soon as possible.
Are you almost done with this assignment?
I meant yes.
I don't know what happened, I posted the information before the due time today. I also left an additional message that many of the questions you posted for me to answer I've already answered in previous assignments.
DQ 4 - Summarize the three types of reasoning as discussed in your text. Which best describes your style and why?
Before the dawn of enlightenment mankind was attached to the superstitions and dark explanations of religion. Anyone that questioned the church was deemed and enemy and many were tortured because of their inquiring minds. The Age of Enlightenment brought the desire for reason and concrete evidence to the happenings in life. Solely basing your life on the unseen can lead to unhealthy habits and rob the individual of scientific pleasures. Logic and reason are always found together as reinforces of the scientific method of answering questions and solving problems. There are several types of reasoning but only three will be examined: cause-and-effect reasoning, conditional reasoning and deductive reasoning.
Cause-and-effect reasoning is based on the reactions of two elements. The first element affects the second element, the second element affects the first element or both elements may affect each other equally. The effect can either be positive or negative in nature. For example studying harder helps students get good grades, studying equals good grades. The situation does not imply that good grades cause students to study harder or that studying and grades have the same effect on the student. It’s important to find the link between the two elements; otherwise the outcome may have occurred without the interaction of the two elements. Conditional reasoning is based on certain factors being in place combined to create a specific outcome. For example: If blue is mixed with yellow than the resulting color is green. This statement proves true everytime. This can also apply to weather situations, if the temperature drops below freezing and it rains the rain will become sleet (Chaningingminds.org, 2011)?
Combining other colors such as red and blue or yellow and brown would not result in green. Lastly is deductive reasoning, which starts with a general assumption and then deduces the answer from specific instances. For example: individuals that steal break the law, breaking the law sends you to jail, if I steal this apple I’m going to jail. I prefer to use deductive reasoning because it allows me to link things together in a rational way (Changingminds.org, 2011). During the linking process as with the example certain assumptions can be made and then rationalized. Using science and logic can be fun when dealing with everyday issues. These tools were not solely made to handle complex situations in labs or testing facilities. Life can be complicated and applying some reasoning skills can make those circumstances less complicated.
Changingminds.org. (2011). Types of Reasoning. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/types_reasoning/types_reasoning.htm
Follow up from week 3 / DQ 4 - According to the text’s Glatthorn and Adams, what are the three types of listening? Discuss which type of listening is more reflective of how you listen and why.
In general listening can be seen as the receiver’s actions to capture, process, understand and the provide feedback to the information that has been given. Many times this is called active listening because the receiver is making an effort to engage the sender. The concept of listening is nothing new but there are different aspects to listening. According to Glatthorn & Adams listening has three specific types: hearing, analyzing and empathizing (Wolvin & Coakley, 1993). These three aspects will be examined for better comprehension. Hearing is the actual process of perceiving sounds and vibrations in the air. The vibrations could produce noises like car horns or conversations involving words. Hearing is what the ear was designed to do in the first place. Analyzing is the process of taking information and determining what it means. This can be considered the distinguishing of sounds. This function occurs in the brain.
Empathizing means that you hear what the other person is saying and even though you may not understand that situation you can provide a sense of understanding. For example: you’re coworker’s son has been sick for two weeks and she’s requesting some time off to be with him. You don’t have any children; however, you do have one godchild so you can relate to how the coworker is feeling. When I listen to other people talk, I try to figure out why they would tell me the information and what the outcome might be. I chose this type of listening because life is too short and you can’t listen intently to everyone so select who gets your time and undivided attention.
Wolvin, A.D. and Coakley, C.G. (1993). Perspectives on Listening. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=H6EY5ViDCRYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA15&dq=Glatthorn+and+Adams+%2B+types+of+li stening&ots=dc5NzAsFC3&sig=pmqzGr8PNBQIjf98b1QwcpJRN8s#v=onepage&q=Glatthorn%20and%20Adams%20%2B%20types%20of%20listening&f=false
DQ 3 - From your reading, what is the difference between groupthink and consensus? Define both and discuss examples of each, either from your professional experiences or a hypothetical situation.
Society is a large group that is composed of many varying members. These members have different ages, races, genders, lifestyles and cultures. When the majority of these individuals come together and makes decisions these becomes laws. There are written laws and unwritten laws based on society’s norms and accepted practices. The formation and the obedience of these laws allow society to function productively. The written laws of society are represented by the laws of the land broken into sections like state and federal. Those who commit federal crimes like robbing banks go to prison. The unwritten rules include no white shoes after Labor Day. Citizens are not usually arrested for breaking these rules but rather are ridiculed and ostracized.
Agreement in this context fits two categories groupthink and consensus. Irving Janis is the psychologist that came up with the concept of groupthink. Janis described the phenomenon as, faulty decisions made by groups that are pressured to come up with solutions which cause deterioration of "mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment. In this type of decision making structure there are no alternatives. The choice is usually irrational and causes dehumanization of others. There are three characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to groupthink. These characteristics are similar backgrounds, insulation from outside influences and no established rules for decision making. In order to identify a groupthink situation look for these eight symptoms: illusion of invulnerability, collective rationalization, belief in inherent morality, stereotyped views of groups, direct pressure on dissenters, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity and self-appointed ‘mindguards’ (Psysr.org).
Cults are a prime example of groupthink such as Charles Manson and Jonestown. These situations included individuals looking for something to believe in. Manson gave his followers a place to belong and XXXXX XXXXX gave his followers a faith to make them strong. In the end Manson’s follower’s murdered people to show their love and devotion, while Jones killed his followers so he would not lose power.
Consensus is much different from groupthink because it allows the voluntary voting on an issue. In other words there is an unpressured agreement on the solution of the situation based on the votes of the majority. Consensus allows all parties to retain their own thoughts and opinions about how the situation should be handled. In the end the majority vote on the solution wins out. There is no brainwashing involved and no punishments for not following the status quo. The best example of this situation is during election time in the United States of America. Every registered voter is allowed to choose the candidate that he or she likes the best. The tallies are counted up and the winner is the one with the most votes.
Psysr.org. What Is Groupthink? Retrieved from http://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink%20overview.htm
Follow up from week 3 / DQ 4 - In my capacity as an HR Professional, I supported a call center with a very strict dress code. The rationale for this strict adherence was that the manager wanted to have the employees feel professional so they would sound professional. This center also had a work at home program which had the same job duties as those in the main building. However, the [email protected]
Personal appearance is part of the psychological makeup of a person’s self-perception. What we think about ourselves on the inside affects the way we behave ourselves on the outside (Businessballs.com). Individuals suffering from depression may wear dark clothing that is simple and plain shoes. The object is to get through the day, do the job and remain unnoticed, basically blend into the surroundings. Our outward appearance is a form of pride that we have for ourselves. It spells out to the world at large, I like myself, I’m worthwhile, I’m important or I will succeed. Those who are unkempt with bad hygiene typically don’t care how they are preserved by the outside world. Another element to consider would be personality type. For instance Type as are high strung individuals that strive for excellence in everything they do. It stands to reason that these individual would give 110% at work no matter what types of clothing they are wearing.
Individuals that seem to have low self-esteem or a lack of self-confidence will need an extra push to get the job done effectively. Requiring those employees to dress at a higher level may be the exact motivation for improved customer service and job performance (Businessballs.com).
Businessballs.com. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm
Chris, What happen to DQ 1 and the DQ 2 ??? I need those questions to be submitted today. EMERGENCY
Please review the DQ1 and DQ2 they are different from the other questions. Also on the DQ2 I have the Collaborating Ethically for you to read and response back with an answer.
Perhaps you can provide me with the answer on Thursday around 1pm California time.
I am looking forward to your feed back.
Chris, never mind about the two previous DQ1 and DQ2. You did provided the answer. Thanks
Also, I have some follow up questions for you. Please get back to me the sooner the better.
Follow Up Questions:
Follow up from week 3 / DQ 4 - In your opinion (based on the readings so far) what role does personal appearance play in communication?
Follow up from week 3 / DQ 4 - According to the text, what is Active Listening? Give an example of a time in your professional life where you have practiced or should have practiced this strategy.
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 1 - To expand our discussion, your author addresses various types of conflict that can arise within groups and teams. According to the text, what is the difference between interpersonal conflict and task conflict? Give an example of each.
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 1 - What is your opinion on the three misconceptions listed regarding conflict as listed in your text? Have you heard of these misconceptions before? Where do you think they came from and still exist today?
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 3 - Based on the reading from your text, what are some ways group members can reduce groupthink? What do you think about the strategies you have listed? Do they have merit? Why or why not?
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 3 - What are the six symptoms of groupthink according to your text? Select one of the symptoms and give an example from your own experience to illustrate your point.
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 4 - Are there situations where all three types of reasoning occur at the same time? Can you give an example? If your answer is no, support why you think that all of the reasonings can’t be used in the same situation.
I am looking forward to your answer as soon as possible.
I'll do what I can as quickly as possible.
Follow up from week 4 / DQ 2 - Roger Fisher and William Ury identified four conflict-management principles, according to the text. What are the four principles? Which do you most closely identify with? Why?
Chris, there are 8 follow up questions. Just wanted to remind you only and thanks.
Human beings live their lives through the five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing. Through these five senses we are able to perceive the world around us. Society has established a set of norms that each individual adheres to. One of those norms is attached to the concept of beauty, attractiveness, homeliness and being ugly. Beauty can be defined as features that draw one or several individuals and cause them to manifest admiration. Ugly is the opposite and defined as something detestable, quiet often something to stay away from. Along with these concept society has set the standards for cleanliness and being dirty.
A clean person is not necessarily attractive but they exhibit the proper bodily hygiene. A dirty person is one that smells but may or may not have physical dirt present. When communicating information most of the time it is face to face which may be difficult if the sender or the receiver fall into the ugly or dirty category? The repulsion fact can cause either the sender or the receiver to miss vital parts of the message because he or she has the desire to get away quickly. Attractiveness is linked to attention which means the individuals involved will both actively send and receive the message (Utk.edu).
Utk.edu. Communication Process. Retrieved from http://www.cls.utk.edu/pdf/ls/Week1_Lesson7.pdf
The communication process is the exchange of information from the sender to the receiver. The method used by the sender can vary from face to face to electronic transmissions. The sender has the responsibility of getting the message to the receiver in the best way possible. This also includes making sure the environment is as distraction free as possible so the message gets to the receiver as quickly and uncorrupted as possible. The receiver is not without responsibilities in this process also. The receiver’s responsibility is to capture the message, process the message, and then provide feedback. This can be paraphrasing or reciting notes from the conversation. This guarantees the receiver comprehended the sender’s message.
The primary method receiver can use to capture a message is called active listening. Active listening is the process of paying close attention to the person who is speaking. The listener’s complete focus is on the speaker so that none of the information given is missed. The comprehension and feedback section of listening should have a 91% or higher degree of accuracy. I practiced active listening during my job interviews. The information I found most relevant or complicated was noted and then repeated back to make sure I understood the parameters of the job (Studygs.net).
Studygs.net. Active Listening. Retrieved from http://www.studygs.net/listening.htm
Conflict is a struggle which can be internal or external. The struggle typically is designed to make the person stronger and help him or her develop additional skills/knowledge. Other types of conflict are not considered beneficial; they are actually hindrances to process and teamwork. They are also hindrances to the individual’s peace of mind and concentration. Focusing on external conflicts there are two examples interpersonal conflict and task conflict. Interpersonal conflict is a struggle between interdependent parties with incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from outsiders reaching their goals (CSUS.edu, 2007). When groups work together it’s easy to see how this conflict takes shape. School clubs are groups that use the funds from the academic institution to perform daily functions. If the school’s budget is small the allocation of funds may shift from year to year among the clubs?
Task conflict is associated with the assignments that each individual within the group is responsible for completing. A project that is based on repairing electrical equipment would have the majority of its work placed on those with electronic experience. The other individuals in the group will have assignments but they will not be as time consuming as the major players. This can cause dissention within the ranks because the individuals doing the majority of the work may feel under appreciated.
CSUS.edu. (2007). Interpersonal Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/o/owenb/pdf%20files/ConflictStyles2008.pdf
When people think about the word conflict the only picture that comes to mind is a battle or a war. It is usually something violent, time consuming and ending in one side’s defeat. The struggle itself will vary but the results are the same in any situation. The two or more parties are struggling against each other to accomplish their primary goals. Conflicts have certain components that start it, keeps it going and when these components are removed than the situation is resolved or it ends. The study of this concept yields some common misconceptions that people believe. Misconception 1: if the conflict is ignored than it will go away (Ada, 2011). One party within the conflict can ignore the other party but that doesn’t stop the other party from taking actions. Prolonged situations with no resolution or attention can only get worse.
Misconception 2: confrontations are always bad and ugly (Ada, 2011). Conflicts can be positive which causes both parties to extend themselves and grow beyond their current situation. Misconception 3: anger is always negative and destructive (Ada, 2011). Anger can be expressed in a positive and constructive way. During criticism people often get upset but the result doesn’t have to be bad, the one being criticized can express their anger without getting violent.
Ada. (2011 October 23). Understanding conflict: Five common misconceptions. Retrieved from http://logosnoesis.com/conflict-misconceptions
Individuals make the world interesting. When individuals are absorbed into a collective known as society or some other prevailing group the uniqueness of those individuals is lost. Conformity is the fastest and often the easiest way to avoid being ostracized. It also helps the individuals to avoid the prescribed and approved punishment of the collective. The concept of belongingness is associated with Maslow theory on the needs of people which require a certain level of satisfaction. Maslow’s theory is called the Hierarchy of Needs which has five levels. The fourth level is belongingness which encompasses the desire to be accepted by everyone and to please everyone if necessary.
This is unhealthy because the consequences are not considered. Groupthink is not an inescapable black hole of sameness, there are ways to change the environment and become an individual again. Celebrate the individuality of each member of the group by acknowledging those that don't fit into the mold. These individuals could receive different types of rewards and even at times be allowed to show the other individuals that different is okay. Make sure the group members are rotated out after a certain amount of time. This keeps the ideas new and exciting. Call of those who don't usually talk and allow them to express themselves within the group (Osakasual, 2011).
Osakasaul. (2011 April 28). Reducing Group-Think. Retrieved from http://osakabentures.com/2011/04/reducing-group-think/
Conformity can be dangerous especially when the individuals have their rights taken away to think their own thoughts. This can be seen as form of slavery because the prevailing thought of the majority is the only acceptable thought. Groupthink is such as concept. It is described as the process of faulty decision making due to group pressures leading to deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment”. Alternatives are ignored while irrational actions and dehumanizing deeds are performed. Members with similar backgrounds are more susceptible to falling under the control of groupthink. Also individuals that are incapable of making clear decisions can fall into the trap as well.
In order to stay away from this trap there are six symptoms to pay attention to. They are as follows: illusion of invulnerability, collective rationalization, belief in inherent morality, stereotyped views of out-groups, direct pressure on dissenters and self-censorship (Psysr.org). The symptom I’m most familiar with is stereotyped views of out-groups. This is an unfavorable view of the groups that are not part of the collective which makes these groups considered enemies. High school is one of the best places to witness this phenomenon first hand. Those students in the popular groups look down on and tend to avoid those who are unpopular.
Psysr.org. What is Groupthink? Retrieved from http://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink%20overview.htm
Decisions shape the way that people interact with the worl around them and also how they live their day to day lives. Decisions are made through the collection, anlayzation and interpretation of data. The resulting outcome leads the indvidual to choose one situation over another because of more favorable conditions. Reasoning is a part of the decision making process. It involves problem solving and cause and effect amoung other factors. There are three types of reasoning that an individual will utilize: inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and abductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves collecting specific information by previous knowledge or learned experience. Deductive reasoning moves in the opposite direction, the individual will start very general and then move to the specifc information. Abductive reasoning follows in the footsteps of inductive reasoning. It's considered a type of critical thinking that searches for patterns in phenomena that suggests an educated guess.
I don't think that all the forms of reasoning can be used in the same situation, however, inductive and abductive can be used together or deductive and abductive. Inductive and deductive are opposites of each other. It would be a waste of time and energy to start with the specifics going to general information and then turn around and go from general information to specifics. It would be like solving a math problem and then moving from the answer to finding the problem.
Ravenndragon.net. Forms of Reasoning. Retrieved from http://www.ravenndragon.net/colorado/modules/reasoning.html
Thank you Chris.
I just accepted your answer.
Can you send me the Emotional Intelligence paper within today???
Can you get this question answer for me within today?
Here is the question:
$$ Bonus $$ / I Need An Experts Fast / Due 1-19-2012 /
$$ Bonus $$/Writer2012/Tutors and Teachers/Due 1-18-2012/High Priority/Week 5 DQ:
Here is the other two questions that I desperately need the answer by SATURDAY.
$$ Bonus / Due 1-20-2012 / I Need An Experts Fast / Urgent
$$ Bonus $$ / Due 1-20-2012 / Priority /Final Learning Team Paper and Presentation The Final Learning Team Paper will detail the salient issues important to the understanding of team dynamics and the team process in general.
$$ Bonus $$ / Writer2012 / Due 1-19-2012 / High Priority / University Faculty Material Small Groups and Team Communication Quiz
Please provide me your status or your current situation?
Please replied back to my urgent messages. I really needed your help with all those new questions.
I am waiting for your feedback status.
I just wanted to ask you, are you MAD or ANGRY at me?
If you do, please accepted my apology. Since we have been working together for a long time and I love the way you provided the information and answer. Please forgive what I did or said before and could you reply back to my urgent messages. I would love for you to handle all of my new questions, because you knew what I needed and when I needed it.
I am looking forward to your urgent feedback.