Hi, the tort of negligence occurs where a person has (1) a duty to protect others (those who are injured), but (2) breaches that duty (by acting in an irresponsible way) that (3) causes (4) an injury to others. Here these elements are met only in b. Tim is told to not drive and, drivers owe other drivers the duty to drive safely. Tim takes medication he knows will lead him to become unable to drive and drives his care negligently as a result which causes harm to a passenger. This is, in many ways, the same way a drunk driver acts when he drinks and drives. While drunk driving is a crime and taking a doctor prescribed medication is not, Tim's action in driving when warned not to means he acted negligently and he is liable in a civil tort case due to that fact.