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Chris M.
Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
Category: Homework
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Experience:  Master's Degree, strong math and writing skills, experience in one-on-one tutoring (college English)
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follow-up: Psychopharmacology: Drugs, Brain, and Behavior

Resolved Question:

Dear XXXXX M.,
Please follow up with my 12/23/2011 accepted question.
Original Question URL:
http://www.justanswer.com/general/nali5-.html
Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

Hello, and thanks for the question.

 

How can I assisted you with follow-up on a previously accepted question?

 

-Chris M.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
1. Cocaine's popularity in the late 1800s:
a. was summarized in Freud's essay Über Coca.
b. was reflected in its use as a treatment for morphine addiction, digestive disorders, and teething pain.
c. was demonstrated in its presence in beverages like Vin Mariani and Coca Cola.
d. resulted in widespread cocaine abuse.
e. all of the above.
2. Which of the following conditions will produce the greatest psychostimulant effect, based on DAT occupancy?
a. intranasal administration of the drug
b. IV administration of the drug
c. high baseline of serotonin in the mesolimbic tract
d. 30% of transporters affected by the drug
e. low baseline of dopamine in the mesolimbic tract
3. What do imaging studies show about the effect of cocaine on the brain?
a. D2 receptor availability is increased in crack users compared to controls.
b. Cocaine use is related to DA availability that varies with brain region.
c. There is some evidence for regions of hyperfusion in the frontal lobe in cocaine abusers.
d. While cocaine abusers show decreased gray matter in certain areas, there appears to be no related deficit in cognitive functioning.
e. Glocose utilization is decreased in the parietal lobe in chronic cocaine users.
4. High-dose methamphetamine use has been linked to all of the following, except:
a. progressive loss of noradrenergic fibers.
b. damage to serotonin fibers.
c. flashbacks and psychosis.
d. violent behaviour.
e. reduced levels of dopamine and DAT.
5. Nicotine:
a. makes up about 10% of the dry tobacco leaf.
b. enters a smoker's lungs on particles of tar.
c. is delivered to the typical smoker in about 30 “hits” per cigarette.
d. reaches the bloodstream from a typical cigarette in the amount of 6 to 11 mg.
e. is one of many psychoactive substances in the tobacco leaf.
6. What happens when smokers are given cigarettes lower in nicotine and tar?
a. They reduce their intake slightly.
b. There is no change in smoking bahaviour.
c. There is a marked decrease in their smoking behaviour.
d. They increase their smoking.
e. They increase smoking and then decrease to near zero levels.
7. What antidepressant is now being used to help smokers withdraw from nicotine?
a. Zoloft
b. Paxil
c. Zyban
d. Prozac
e. NicVAX
8. Adenosine:
a. is a constituent of ATP.
b. builds up during wakefulness, creating a state of drowsiness.
c. acts on four different receptor subtypes.
d. is blocked by caffeine.
e. all of the above.
9. Which of the following statements about the uses of marijuana is false?
a. Medical use of marijuana has only been recognized recently as individual states have attempted to pass laws legalizing “medical marijuana” use.
b. Hemp has important non-drug purposes, and is used in rope, cloth, and paper.
c. Cannabis plants contain more than 60 cannabinoids, some with psychoactive properties that make the plant attractive as a drug.
d. At one point in US history, hemp was an important agricultural commodity.
e. Religious use of marijuana dates back to ancient China and India.
10. Concerning the time course of THC levels and the route of administration:
a. plasma levels of THC peak more rapidly following injection or smoking than they do in oral administration of the drug.
b. people smoking marijuana typically reach their peak THC levels before they finish the cigarette or joint.
c. oral administration of THC produces low plasma levels that drop off quickly.
d. at maximum THC intoxication after smoking, brain and plasma THC levels are equilibrated.
e. all of the above.
11. Select the most accurate statement concerning marijuana use in the United States.
a. There has been a steep increase in new users of marijuana since 1995.
b. The government's policies and media campaigns have been very effective in reducing marijuana use.
c. The typical age for initiating marijuana use is around 13, based on a representative longitudinal study.
d. The prevalence of drug use, including marijuana use, declines with age.
e. Contrary to popular belief, marijuana use is not widely or heavily used in this country.
12. Which of the folowing is not a characteristic of amotivational syndrome?
a. anxiety
b. lack of planning
c. decreased productivity
d. apathy
e. loss of drive
13. The most common route of administration for LSD is:
a. smoking.
b. oral.
c. topical.
d. injection.
e. intranasal.
14. Most hallucinogens resemble either __________ or __________ in their chemical structure.
a. phenethylamines; indoleamines
b. indoleamines; carbolines
c. carbolines; phenethylamines
d. phenethylamines; acetylcholine
e. acetylcholine; indoleamines
15. Which of the following is not a way that PCP or ketamine is typically administered?
a. orally
b. intravenously
c. transdermally
d. by inhalation or smoking
e. intramuscularly
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

HelloCustomer

 

I'm working on your questions. I'll post the answers in an hour or so.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hello Chris M.,

the last questions I do not need it for now , you can work on it by tomorrow . For now I need your help on three new questions could you help me rigth now please.
my question I have just 30 munits to have it , So , Do you can stay with me right now and keep chating with me , to give to me the all answers for my new questions?


I am waiting for your replay,

Thanx
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
did you get my message
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

HelloCustomer

 

Sorry, I had to log off before I received your reply. Hope you got the assistance you were needing!

Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

HelloCustomer

 

Here are the answers to the multiple choice questions for comparison with your own.

 

1. e. all of the above.

2. b. IV administration of the drug

3. b. Cocaine use is related to DA availability that varies with brain region.

4. a. progressive loss of noradrenergic fibers.

5. b. enters a smoker's lungs on particles of tar.

6. d. They increase their smoking.

7. c. Zyban

8. e. all of the above.

9. a. Medical use of marijuana has only been recognized recently...

10. e. all of the above.

11. d. The prevalence of drug use, including marijuana use, declines with age.

12. a. anxiety

13. b. oral.

14. a. phenethylamines; indoleamines

15. c. transdermally

 

Hope this helps!

Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
Category: Homework
Satisfied Customers: 2492
Experience: Master's Degree, strong math and writing skills, experience in one-on-one tutoring (college English)
Chris M. and 4 other Homework Specialists are ready to help you
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hello,
I would like to know when you will be online. So, please if you do not mind a provide to me your scheduled time that you will be able to contact.
Thanx
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.
I will be online until about 1:00 pm EST.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hello,
Are u available right now ?
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.
Yes, you can post your question I'll have a look.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
If I give it to you a question ? cause I have 3 questions as short essay .
And I need your help, to answers those question and give it to me the answers right now .
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Do you have time to stay with me, Please I need your help cause I have time limt when I will open this questiones I need to post the answer on the same time cause I have 30 min to answers all this questions , after the time count 30 min it will be closed automatically.

So Can you help me please.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

HelloCustomer

 

If you are referring to the three questions on drug absorption, action potentials, and

neurotransmitters, I won't be able to answer those. I suggest that you make a new post of that question and indicate if it is a timed assignment.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Please I need your help cause I have time limt when I will open this questiones I need to post the answer on the same time cause I have 30 min to answers all this questions , after the time count 30 min it will be closed automatically.

So Can you help me please.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

Sorry, I won't feel comfortable promising to assist with such a short time limit.

 

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Could u try your best to help me , cause I trust your answer.
Also It will be about the same subject that you answer to me on the multible choise,
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.
Customer I wasn't ignoring your reply. I had a solicitor at the door. I see you have posted you question to a medical expert, probably a more appropriate person to assist you with these questions. Good luck on this assignment!
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hello Chris,




1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of abused inhalant drugs?
a. They must be volatile liquids or gases.
b. They are relative newcomers to the drug abuse scene.
c. The route of administration involves sniffing, inhaling, or spraying an aerosol.
d. They cannot be inhaled drugs that belong to another defined class of abused substances, such as nicotine and smoking.
e. While humans find inhalant drugs to be reinforcing, animals do not.
2. Low doses of GHB produce:
a. disinhibition.
b. euphoria.
c. calmness and relaxation.
d. an alcohol-like experience.
e. all of the above.
3. One study reviewed 88 GHB overdose cases seen at the emergency department of San Francisco General Hospital. These GHT overdose cases were characterized by all of the following, except:
a. the majority were young male adults.
b. most had consumed GHB plus another substance, such as alcohol or MDMA.
c. recovery and discharge took an average of three days.
d. most were barely conscious or comatose upon arrival at the hospital.
e. common symptoms were hypothermia, hypotension, and emesis.
4. Which of the following effects of anabolic steroids is least desirable for male users of these drugs?
a. increasing 5(alpha)-reductase effects on testosterone
b. increasing the aromatization of testosterone
c. increasing the effects of steroids on glucocorticoids
d. increasing the conversion to DHT
e. decreasing lococorticoid catabolism
5. Reactive depression:
a. typically results in anhedonia and feelings of worthlessness.
b. leads to such loneliness that the person considers suicide as the only option.
c. is one of the more serious affective disorders.
d. often occurs following loss, failure, or disappointment.
e. all of the above.
6. Animal models of depression measure all of the following as characteristics of the disorder, except:
a. lack of responding or freezing.
b. changes in neuroendocrine responses.
c. cognitive changes, such as failure to learn to escape an aversive stimulus.
d. alterations in emotional responses.
e. changes in eating and sleeping habits.
7. Which of the following is not a potential side effect of the tricyclic antidepressants?
a. sedation
b. confusion
c. hypertension
d. dry mouth
e. urinary retention
8. Which of the following statements about lithium is false?
a. It reduces manic symptoms in about 60% to 80% of cases.
b. It is taken for the maintenance period of 6 to 8 months and should then be safely withdrawn.
c. It is often administered with an antidepressant drug.
d. It dramatically increases the time between recurring episodes of mania and depression.
e. It is the most effective drug and usual choice for people with bipolar disorder.
9. Which of the following does not occur during anxiety?
a. stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
b. sleep disturbances
c. activation of the fight-or-flight response
d. impaired concentration
e. muscle tension
10. Which of the following is true about the barbiturates?
a. Ultrashort-acting barbiturates are the most likely to be abused.
b. Short/intermediate-acting barbiturates are most likely to be presecribed for insomnia.
c. Long-acting barbiturates are typically used for anesthesia.
d. Luminal is an example of an ultrashort-acting barbiturate.
e. Amytal and Seconal are both long-acting barbiturates.
11. Which of the following is not an advantage that the benzodiazepines have over the barbiturates?
a. There is more metabolic tolerance with the benzodiazepines than with the barbiturates.
b. The benzodiazepines have a higher therapeutic index.
c. An antagonist drug is available to reverse the effects of benzodiazepine overdose, but not barbiturate overdose.
d. Less physical dependence is reported with benzodiazepines compared to barbiturates.
e. The withdrawal syndrome following use of benzodiazepines is milder than that of the barbiturates, and it is not life-threatening.
12. Which of the following is an anxiety-reducing endogenous ligand at the benzodiazepine receptor?
a. diazepam binding inhibitor
b. clonazepam
c. endozepines
d. (beta)-carbolines
e. DMCM
13. The PPI, or prepulse inhibition of startle model of schizophrenia:
a. accounts for the inability of those with it to screen out irrelevant stimuli.
b. has uncovered deficits in a circuit involving the limbic cortex, striatum, globus pallidus, and reticular formation.
c. has shown that PPI is made worse by dopamine agonists and restored by antipsychotic medications that act as dopamine receptor blockers.
d. is appealing because of its broad applications in genetic, environmental, and neuroanatomical areas of research.
e. all of the above.
14. The time course of effectiveness for antipsychotic medications has been explained by the observation that:
a. dopamine receptor blockade is not directly linked to clinical improvement.
b. chronic dopamine autoreceptor blockade may result in receptor supersensitivity, and hence decreased dopamine turnover.
c. depolarization block can occur in response to increased dopamine turnover, which results from an initial antipsychotic drug blockade of receptors.
d. clinical improvement takes several weeks to occur, during which adaptive changes at the synapse are most likely occurring.
e. all of the above.
15. All of the following are advantages of clozapine treatment of schizophrenia, except that it:
a. works more quickly than the older medications.
b. has a low incidence of motor side effects.
c. helps about 60% of patients who do not respond to traditional medications.
d. reduces negative symptoms of the disorder.
e. reduces anxiety and tension.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

Hello, and thanks for the question.

 

1. b. They are relative newcomers to the drug abuse scene.

2. e. all of the above.

3. c. recovery and discharge took an average of three days.

4. d. increasing the conversion to DHT

5. d. often occurs following loss, failure, or disappointment.

6. d. alterations in emotional responses.

7. c. hypertension

8. b. It is taken for the maintenance period of 6 to 8 months and should then be safely withdrawn.

9. a. stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system

10. d. Luminal is an example of an ultrashort-acting barbiturate.

11. a. There is more metabolic tolerance with the benzodiazepines than with the barbiturates.

12. c. endozepines

13. e. all of the above.

14. e. all of the above.

15. a. works more quickly than the older medications.

 

Hope this helps!

Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
Category: Homework
Satisfied Customers: 2492
Experience: Master's Degree, strong math and writing skills, experience in one-on-one tutoring (college English)
Chris M. and 4 other Homework Specialists are ready to help you
Customer: replied 2 years ago.


1. Aspartate is:
a. a transmitter released from glial cells only.
b. an excitatory transmitter that acts in much the same way as glutamate.
c. the ionized form of the amino acid glutamic acid.
d. found in the spinal cord, whereas glutamate is found in the brain.
e. not yet established as a transmitter substance in humans.
2. Which of the following processes does not occur in LTP?
a. the AMPA-receptor mediated EPSP is facilitated
b. calcium influx activates protein kinases
c. AMPA receptors increase in number and in sensitivity
d. tetanic stimulation displaces magnesium ions during the induction phase
e. NMDA receptors are highly activated during the expression phase
3. Which of the following areas is not rich in GABA?
a. cerebral cortex
b. cerebellum
c. raphe
d. hippocampus
e. substantia nigra
4. What do neurosteroids and benzodiazepines have in common?
a. enhance GABAA receptor function
b. sedative-hypnotic effects
c. reduce anxiety
d. act as local signaling molecules
e. all of the above
5. The most commonly used illicit drug is:
a. majijuana.
b. heroin.
c. cocaine.
d. OxyContine.
6. The physical dependence model of addiction cannot:
a. explain early drug use that leads to dependence, only drug use that occurs after dependence has occurred.
b. readily explain addiction to drugs that do not induce strong physical dependence.
c. readily explain relapse to drug use that occurs after drug detoxification.
d. all of the above.
7. The incentive-sensitization model of addiction distinguishes between __________ and __________.
a. drug seeking; drug taking
b. drug liking; drug wanting
c. drug liking; drug taking
d. craving; drug seeking
8. The reinforcing effects of drugs may be attributed to:
a. relief from feelings of anxiety.
b. euphoria or mood elevation.
c. functional enhancement.
d. all of the above.
9. During fermentation, yeast converts each __________ molecule into two molecules of __________ and two molecules of carbon dioxide.
a. sugar; alcohol
b. fat; alcohol
c. alcohol; sugar
d. sugar; fat
10. The memory disturbances seen in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome include:
a. the loss of memory for events in the distant past.
b. total amnesia.
c. a loss of short-term, immediate memory with retention of distant memories.
d. little actual memory impairment.
11. Acute alcohol __________ and chronic alcohol __________ GABAA-mediated chloride flux.
a. enhances; inhibits
b. inhibits; inhibits
c. enhances; enhances
d. inhibits; enhances
12. In the __________ method of genetic study, genes of affected and unaffected individuals who are not related are compared to search for alleles that may be common among affected individuals.
a. case-control
b. linkage study
c. selective breeding
d. family history
13. Opiates are dangerous at high doses due mostly to:
a. effects on cardiac muscle.
b. the increased likelihood of a stroke.
c. the suppression of the brain stem's respiratory centre.
d. an overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
e. the inability to experience pain in dangerous situations.
14. What do we know about the structure of the opiate receptor from receptor cloning studies?
a. Each receptor has between 650 and 700 amino acids.
b. The receptors appear to be metabotropic.
c. Each receptor has 12 transmembrane proteins.
d. These receptors will bind to the same ligands in the same way.
e. All of the above.
15. When you stub your toe on a hard object, the lingering ache you feel after the initial sharp pain has worn off is caused by:
a. pain messages traveling in the A(delta) fibers.
b. input reaching the somatosensory cortex and being processed in adjacent areas.
c. information being carried in slowly conducting unmyelinated fibres.
d. rapid adaptation occurring at spinal cord levels.
e. stimulation of the secondary sensory pain system.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.

HelloCustomer

 

I can answer these questions tomorrow (1/02), if that meets your deadline. If the previous answer set (12/28) was helpful, please "accept" that answer so I receive compensation for my time.

 

Thanks!

Expert:  Chris M. replied 2 years ago.
THIS ANSWER IS LOCKED!

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Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
Category: Homework
Satisfied Customers: 2492
Experience: Master's Degree, strong math and writing skills, experience in one-on-one tutoring (college English)
Chris M. and 4 other Homework Specialists are ready to help you

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