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Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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Psychopharmacology: Drugs, Brain, and Behavior

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1- After drug administration has occurred, the amount of drug in the blood that is free to bind at specific target sites refers to: a- therapeutic dose. b- first-pass effect. c- bioavailability. d- ED50. 2- The absorption of a drug depends on: a- lipid solubility. b- ionization. c- the concentration. d- all of the above. 3- Which of the following is not true of drug clearance that follows first-order
kinetics? a- Molecules are cleared at a constant rate regardless of drug concentration. b- Molecules are cleared at an exponential rate. c- A constant fraction of the free drug in the blood is removed in each time interval. d- Clearance of most drugs occurs in this manner. 4- While pharmacokinetics describes how the body deals drugs, __________ describes how drug molecules interact with their targets. a- drug effect b- pharmacodynamics c- antagonist action d- agonist action 5- Tolerance can result from:/p> a- conditioning factors. b- increased activity of liver enzymes. c- downregulation of receptors. d- all of the above. 6- Neurons responsible for converting environmental stimuli into neural signals are known as: a- sensory neurons. b- interneurons. c- motor neurons. d- pyramidal cells. 7- The __________ contains the nucleus, which in turn contains pairs of __________. a- axon hillock; chromosomes b- soma; chromosomes c- soma; ribosomes d- cell body; ribosomes 8- Many ion channels are not normally open, but must be gated or opened by some event. Which of the following is not a typical means of opening ion channels? a- binding of neurotransmitter to external binding site b- change in voltage across the membrane c- enzymatic reactions d- phosphorylation by an intracellular second messenger 9- Which of the following is not true of local potentials? a- They are generated on the dendrites and cell body. b- They occur only if threshold is reached. c- They move passively along the membrane. d- They are integrated at the axon hillock. 10- A __________ section of the brain is cut parallel to the face. a- sagittal b- coronal c- horizontal d- caudal 11- The most common type of synapse in the brain is the __________ synapse. a- axoaxonic b- axodendritic c- axosomatic d- presynaptic inhibition 12- The process of releasing neurotransmitter molecules from the vesicles is known as __________ and occurs as a result of an influx of __________. a- exocytosis; Ca 2+ b- endocytosis; Ca2+ c- exocytosis; Na+ d- docking; K+ 13- Which of the following is not true of ionotropic receptors? a- They rapidly cause intracellular effects. b- G proteins are activiated upon binding of a neurotransmitter. c- They comprise several subunits. d- Binding of an agonist opens an ion channel. 14- Neurotrophic factors are generally involved in regulating: a- long-term changes, such as gene expression. b- the rate of cell firing. c- rapid synaptic events. d- opening of ion channels. 15- Why are neuropharmacologists interested in the endocrine system? a- Hormones can alter the behavioral responses to drugs. b- Some hormones have psychoactive effects on their own. c- Hormone secretion can be altered by psychoactive drugs. d- All of the above
1.    __________ refers to specific molecular changes that occur when a drug binds to a particular target site or receptor, while __________ are the resulting widespread alterations in function.
    a.    Drug action; therapeutic effects
    b.    Side effects; drug effects
    c.    Therapeutic effects; side effects
    d.    Drug action; drug effects
    2.    For most rapid absorption, the best way to administer a drug would be:
    a.    subcutaneously.
    b.    intramuscularly.
    c.    orally.
    d.    intravenously.
    3.    Biotransformation of drugs in the liver often occurs in two stages; Phase I changes are __________ and include __________.
    a.    nonsynthetic; conjugation
    b.    synthetic; conjugation
    c.    nonsynthetic; oxidation
    d.    synthetic; oxidation
    4.    Most drugs and neurotransmitters act upon:
    a.    intracellular receptors.
    b.    membrane-bound receptors.
    c.    protein synthesis.
    d.    second messengers.
    5.    __________ tolerance occurs as a result of cellular adaptation to the presence of a specific drug.
    a.    Cross
    b.    Drug disposition
    c.    Pharmacodynamic
    d.    Behavioral
    6.    Neurons rely on glial cells for:
    a.    protection.
    b.    metabolic support.
    c.    insulation.
    d.    all of the above.
    7.    Which of the following statements is true of the myelin sheath?
    a.    It is produced by glial cells.
    b.    It increases the speed of signal conduction along the axon.
    c.    It saves energy.
    d.    All of the above statements are true.
    8.    The primary immune response in the CNS comes from the action of:
    a.    microglia.
    b.    astrocytes.
    c.    white blood cells.
    d.    oligodendroglia.
    9.    Action potentials are first generated at the axon hillock because this is where __________ are located.
    a.    non-gated K+ channels
    b.    voltage-gated Na+ channels
    c.    transporters
    d.    Na+/K+ pumps
    10.    Clusters of cell bodies in the CNS are called __________, and their associated bundles of axons are called __________.
    a.    nuclei; tracts
    b.    ganglia; tracts
    c.    nuclei; nerves
    d.    ganglia; nerves
    11.    Otto Loewi's experiment with frog hearts was important because it demonstrated that:
    a.    the idea of chemical neurotransmission is correct.
    b.    electrical impulses are responsible for neural transmission.
    c.    frog hearts can be kept alive when removed from the frog.
    d.    none of the above.
    12.    Which of the following statements is true of the neuropeptides?
    a.    Replenishing neuropeptides after neural activity occurs more slowly.
    b.    Neuropeptides must be synthesized in the cell body.
    c.    Necessary enzymes are packed into the vesicle with the protein precursor.
    d.    All of the above statements are true.
    13.    Ligand-gated ion channels are __________; G protein coupled receptors are __________.
    a.    slow/ionotropic; fast/metabotropic
    b.    fast/ionotropic; slow/metabotropic
    c.    slow/metabotropic; fast/ionotropic
    d.    fast/metabotropic; slow/ionotropic
    14.    The primary treatment for Parkinson's disease is the administration of L-DOPA because this drug:
    a.    stimulates the release of dopamine.
    b.    inhibits the synthesis of DA.
    c.    directly stimulates postsynaptic DA receptors.
    d.    is the synthetic precursor to DA.
    15.    Stress hormones have been shown to interact with drugs of abuse in that:
    a.    stressors enhance the responses of rodents to psychostimulants, such as amphetamine.
    b.    humans may relapse to drug-use behaviours when under stress.
    c.    they may alter the responsiveness of brain dopamine systems.
    d.    all of the above.

Hello, and thanks for the question.


Exam #1

1. c- bioavailability

2. d- all of the above.

3. a- Molecules are cleared at a constant rate regardless of drug concentration.

4. b- pharmacodynamics

5. d- all of the above.

6. a- sensory neurons.

7. b- soma; chromosomes

8. c- enzymatic reactions

9. d- They are integrated at the axon hillock

10. b- coronal

11. b- axodendritic

12. a- exocytosis; Ca 2+

13. b- G proteins are activated upon binding of a neurotransmitter.

14. a- long-term changes, such as gene expression.

15. d- All of the above


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Exam 2


1. d. Drug action; drug effects

2. d. intravenously.

3. c. nonsynthetic; oxidation

4. b. membrane-bound receptors.

5. c. Pharmacodynamic

6. d. all of the above.

7. d. All of the above statements are true.

8. a. microglia.

9. b. voltage-gated Na+ channels

10. a. nuclei; tracts

11. a. the idea of chemical neurotransmission is correct.

12. d. All of the above statements are true.

13. b. fast/ionotropic; slow/metabotropic

14. d. is the synthetic precursor to DA.

15. choice 'e' is not specified


Hope this helps


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Customer: replied 4 years ago.
  1. Which of the following statements about glutamate is false?

    1. It is involved in synthesizing new proteins.
    2. It plays a role in energy metabolism.
    3. It is a widely used excitatory amino acid transmitter.
    4. It is metabolized by glutaminase into glutamine.
    5. It is the ionized form of glutamic acid.
  2. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Doogie mice?

    1. They show enhanced fear conditioning.
    2. They perform better on a spatial navigation task.
    3. They demonstrate preference for a novel object on an LTM task.
    4. They show decreased sensitivity to pain.
    5. They have more efficient NMDA receptor functioning.
  3. The GABAA receptor:

    1. forms channels that permit chloride to move from the inside to the outside of the cell membrane.
    2. contains four subunits labeled (alpha), (beta), (gamma), and (delta).
    3. is a metabotropic receptor that inhibits cyclic AMP formation.
    4. is stimulated by the intoxicant drug muscimol.
    5. is blocked by the anticonvulsant Metrazol.
  4. GABAB receptor agonists are clinically useful for treating:

    1. anxiety.
    2. seizures.
    3. muscle spasms.
    4. alcoholism.
    5. insomnia.
  5. According to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 120 million Americans __________ and more than 71 million __________.

    1. smoked marijuana; drank alcohol
    2. drank alcohol; used tobacco
    3. drank alcohol; used cocaine or heroin
    4. used tobacco; used one or more illicit drugs
  6. In a progressive-ratio procedure, the response requirement at which an animal stops responding for a drug is called the __________ point.

    1. saturation
    2. breaking
    3. quitting
    4. intoxication
  7. Which of the following is true regarding Solomon and Corbitt's opponent-process model of motivation?

    1. The a-process gets smaller with repeated stimulations.
    2. The b-process gets larger with repeated stimulations.
    3. The b-process gets smaller with repeated stimulations.
    4. The a-process gets larger with repeated stimulations.
  8. According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals suffering from anxiety should prefer __________, and those suffering from depression should prefer __________.

    1. cocaine; alcohol
    2. cocaine; heroin
    3. alcohol; cocaine
    4. alcohol; heroin
  9. The first alcoholic beverage was:

    1. a thick, hearty beer.
    2. mead.
    3. wine.
    4. gin.
  10. Limited alcohol consumption (fewer than three drinks per day) may decrease dementia by:

    1. reducing the risk of stroke.
    2. increasing blood flow, and thus oxygen, to the brain.
    3. decreasing “bad” cholesterol.
    4. increasing “good” cholesterol.
  11. Which of the following is not seen during alcohol withdrawal?

    1. decrease in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens
    2. increase in the amount of current needed for intracranial brain stimulation
    3. increase in glutamate release
    4. increase in chloride flux through GABAA receptors
  12. Disulfiram makes consumption of alcohol unpleasant because it:

    1. blocks the conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde.
    2. blocks the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid.
    3. blocks (mu)-opioid receptors.
    4. acts as a partial agonist at NMDA receptors.
  13. At low doses, opiates exert all of the following effects, except:

    1. pain relief.
    2. pupil dilation.
    3. drowsiness.
    4. reduced sex drive.
    5. relief from anxiety.
  14. The opioid propeptides:

    1. are made in the terminal button and cleaved by enzymes into the opiate peptides.
    2. are referred to as the “enkephalins.”
    3. are processed by proteases into both opiate and non-opiate peptides.
    4. include the endorphins and the endomorphins.
    5. are all coded for by the same gene.
  15. Pain transmission in the spinal cord can be blocked by:

    1. the action of inhibitory spinal interneurons that release endorphins.
    2. activating descending pathways from the midbrain that inhibit the pain pathway.
    3. turning on descending pathways that activate endorphin interneurons.
    4. application of drugs, such as morphine, that activate the opiate interneuron.
    5. all of the above.
I'll check into these question tomorrow (12/22), if that meets your deadline.
Customer: replied 4 years ago.
Thank yo so much for your response, it is to helpful , but I wanna ask you important question , Is there any way to contact you easily such as , Live Chat, or any personal contact, cause some times I have deadline to answers several questions and that deadline it has to be 60 minutes or 2 hours , for that I really need your help!
So please could you please provide me for any solution that will help me on my difficult issue?
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