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Discuss the interface between functional and project management.

Customer Question


  1. Discuss the interface between functional and project management.

  2. What do you believe are critical functions that the project office should perform?

  3. Discuss the following considerations in the selection of a project manager:
    - maturity
    - use of tactics
    - availability
    - technical expertise
    - customer orientation
    - exposure within and outside of the company
    Describe why failing to evaluate these considerations may result in the selection of the wrong project manager.

  4. Describe approaches and techniques for developing and training project managers.

  5. What ethical issues are common during the selection of project personnel?


--Discussion Question:

What skills do project managers need now that they did not need in the past? What skills do you think project managers will need in the next 50 years that they do not have now? Why?


 


 



  1. What power can the project manager exert as interpersonal influences? How effective are these powers and what are their limitations?

  2. Describe the behavioral differences between functional and project managers.

  3. You are at the end of the seventh month of your project and everything is proceeding as planned. Motivation appears high. Decide which of the following you should do and provide an explanation your response:
    - Leave well enough alone.
    - Look for better ways to improve the functioning of the team. Talk to them and make them feel important.
    - Call a team meeting and review the remaining schedules for the project. Prepare contingency plans.
    - Make sure the team is still focusing on the goals and objectives of the project.

  4. What is meant by polarization of communications? What are the most common causes? What can you do to resolve this situation?

  5. Describe the role of the project manager in "staffing for excellence."


 



  1. Using the project life cycle develop a matrix showing when various sources of conflict occur.

  2. Determine the best conflict resolution mode for each of the following situations:
    - Two of your functional team members appear to have personality clashes and almost always assume opposite points of view during decision-making.
    - R&D quality control and manufacturing operations quality control continually argue as to who should perform testing on an R&D project. R&D postulates that it is its project, and manufacturing argues that it will eventually go into production and that their staff wishes to be involved as early as possible.
    - Two functional department managers continually argue as to who should perform a certain test. You know that this situation exists, and that the department managers are trying to work it out themselves, often with great pain. However you are not sure that they will be able to resolve the problem themselves.

  3. Describe the communications process in place on your project or in your organization.

  4. From your own experience, provide an example requiring conflict management. Discuss how the incident was handled, what the results were, and what might have been done to improve the situation.

  5. List the types of communication in use on your projects. For each communication type determine the following:
    - The intent of the communication
    - The recipient(s) of the communication and their needs/expectations
    - The mode of communication
    - The expected results of the communication
    - How the communication is documented
    - Your recommendations for improving the communication


--Discussion Question:



Discuss the need for development of a project vocabulary. How would you go about meeting this requirement?


 



  1. List and describe the critical roles of senior/executive management during the life cycle of the project.

  2. Describe how adopting various types of management structures and initiatives impact project management. Consider the following:
    - Concurrent engineering/management
    - Total quality management (TQM)
    - Empowerment
    - Self-directed work teams
    - Life-cycle costing

  3. In a matrix organization, people are often assigned full-time to a project. What is the responsibility of the project manager to the assigned resource and to the manager the resource is "borrowed" from?

  4. What should the role of the project manager be in the planning endeavors, including strategic and operational planning, of his or her company?

  5. Some executives would prefer to have their project managers become tunnel-vision workaholics, falling in love with their jobs and living to work instead of working to live. How do you feel about this?


 


 

Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  Angela--Moderator replied 2 years ago.
Hi, I’m a moderator for this topic and I wonder whether you’re still waiting for an answer. If you are, please let me know and I will do my best to find an Expert to assist you right away. If not, feel free to let me know and I will cancel this question for you. Thank you!
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Yes, I am still waiting for an expert.
Let me know if you need further information.
Not sure why experts do not respond to my posts Frown
Expert:  Angela--Moderator replied 2 years ago.
Sometimes, finding the right Expert can take a little longer than expected and we thank you greatly for your understanding. We’ll be in touch again shortly.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
should I try posting it to some other category ?
I wanted to post it in homework, but I could not find homework category
Expert:  Angela--Moderator replied 2 years ago.
Hi, your question was moved for you to the Homework category on the 11th, so it is open to all the Homework Experts. Thank you for your patience, your business is very important to us, we are waiting on the Expert with the right expertise to come online. Feel free to let us know if you would like us to continue searching for an Expert or if you would like us to close your question. Thank you for your understanding!
Expert:  Jennifer Spraggins replied 2 years ago.
I would love to assist you on this assignment!! When should this be completed?
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
This is due in 3 weeks from now. However, you can breakdown the work and send it to me as soon as you are done. Here is what I would like you to do. The first 5 questions and the discussion questions' response provide it by this 12/18/2011. The next 10 questions and the discussion question response be provided by 12/25/2011 and the last 5 questions be provided by January 2, 2012. Let me know if this works. Or if you want you can finish all of the questions at once and provided them by Jan, 2, 2012. Please keep the communication and if you change your mind for any reason let me know ahead of time so that I can do the work myself.
Let me know your thoughts.
Thanks.
Expert:  Jennifer Spraggins replied 2 years ago.

That sounds good!! I'll breakdown the work, and complete it in the portions.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Please stay in communication. I expect the work on time. Please.
Expert:  Jennifer Spraggins replied 2 years ago.
Sure thing!! I'll have this in for you!!
Expert:  6822499 replied 2 years ago.
I see you may be working with another expert. I am a PMI Certified PM, have run a PMO, and have worked in various sectors and industries as a PM. It may be beneficial to answer your questions in chat to address your questions as they arise.

I'm not sure what arrangements you have in place with current expert and I want to be respectful of that. Otherwise, I am happy to assist in any case.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
The first homework was due yesterday. Jennifer please let me know if you are unable to do this work. I expect the first 5 questionds and the discussion question by end of day today.
Thanks
Expert:  Jennifer Spraggins replied 2 years ago.
Hey, I'm gonna opt out so that(NNN) NNN-NNNNcan answer this question.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
(NNN) NNN-NNNN the questions are all yours. Please reply asap and confirm only if you are serious about working on the questions.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

Excuse me, do you still need help with this assignment?

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Yes, I still need help with the above questions. Please commit to work only if you have the time to do the work. Let me know. Thanks.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.
Due date & time? Page or word length? Number of refs? APA? Is there additional information required to complete the assignment?
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
OK, due date is 3 weeks from now. Every question must be a minimum of 200 - 250 words and only 2 references are required per question other than the discussion questions. References are not required for any of the discussion questions. Yes, it has to be APA format.
If you agree on working on these questions I will need you to provide me first 6 answers on 12/24/2011 and the next 5 answers on 12/29/2011 and the next 6 questions on 01/06/2012 and the last question on 01/12/2012 This is to ensure healthy progress. I have been surprised by other experts by sitting on the questions for weeks and not doing any thing and than opting out from work.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.
My apologies that it has taken so long for your project to be completed. I'll take care of it for you. Do I need any other information to answer the questions?
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
The most important of all information is that time is of the essence on this work. Please honor, respect and follow the timeline I provided. If you are a teacher you must be aware that deadlines are important otherwise work is never graded appropriately.
Thanks.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.
Understood.
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hi Chris,
How are the first 5 questions coming along?
I am expecting to receive the first 5 answers tomorrow (12/24/2011).
Please keep me updated.
Thanks
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

Things are coming along fine. Everything will be completed and ready as requested. Merry Christmas.

Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.



1. Discuss the interface between functional and project management.

The structure of a business is determined by the business plan. The products and services produced lead upper level management to chose from different structures such as functional, matrix, etc. Functional structure and management is based on organizing businesses into departments or units. The type of work performed is the basis for this segmentation. Employees that perform customer services tasks such as answering customer questions and handling customer problems would be separated from the production workers. These individuals relieve customer order information and create the products that were specified. They also produce products that are specified by the business (Businessdictionary.com). Project management works much the same way.


Project management and managers deal in resources. A company has a project that needs to be completed. The proper resources such as personnel, money, project plan and contingency plan are required. This process is used to gather the best employees inside or outside the company according to the needs of the project. Each project member has a specific task to complete and then report the work to the project manager, who then coordinates the results. From the beginning the chain of command is made clear withing the team. The other resources are planned and discussed before the project gets of the ground. The discussion takes place between upper level management and the project manager (MPUG.com, 2011).


Functional management and project management both utilize compartmentalization to accomplish a goal. Functional management deals with the business as a whole and the divisions working together to maintain profits and customer loyalty. This structure is used for the life of the company. In terms of project management its focus is a small team brought together to complete a task within the company. The team has a defined lifespan and each individual takes a separate task, completes it and submits the results to the project manager.


Businessdictionary.com. Functional Management. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/functional-management.html


MPUG.com. (2011). What is Project Management? Retrieved from http://www.mpug.com/Pages/WhatisProjectManagement.aspx


2. What do you believe are critical functions that the project office should perform?


Projects are a crucial means for businesses to solve issues, increase revenue and bring in more customers. To ensure the success of a project upper level management either assigns a project manager in house or hire a project manager from outside. The project manager is the go between for upper level management and the project team. Upper level management sets the parameters of the project and gives an outline of what is needed to accomplish the task. The project manager researches and then assembles the most qualified employees and makes the best use of the resources available. A proficient project manager can complete the project on time and under budget. Sometime even complete the task before the scheduled due date (Projectsmart.co.uk, 2011).


The project manager has several duties and responsibilities, however, the four most important will be discussed. First, the project manager is responsible for bringing success to the project. Every employee, move and use of resources must be a calculated step towards completing the project. Second, the project manager maintains open and constant communication between the project team and the authorities within the business. Third, the project manager must keep all project business confidential. This includes any problems that the project team may have faced concerning their tasks or each other. Fourth, the project manager should be able to resolve all emergencies when they arise or have the resources to solve them (Buzzle.com, 2011).


Project management can be a stressful task because of the extensive research needed to complete the project by chosen the best resources. The ultimate result of the project should be success along with harmony within the project team.


Buzzle.com. (2011). Project Manager Duties and Responsibilities. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/project-manager-duties-and-responsibilities.html


Projectsmart.co.uk. (2011). Role of the Project Manager. Retrieved from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/role-of-the-project-manager.html


3. Discuss the following considerations in the selection of a project manager:

- maturity

- use of tactics

- availability

- technical expertise

- customer orientation

- exposure within and outside of the company

Describe why failing to evaluate these considerations may result in the selection of the wrong project manager.


Choosing a project manager can either be a simple task or a difficult task. The task is simple when upper level management knows exactly what is needed to accomplish their goals. The task is difficult when upper level management only knows the end result to be achieved but not how to get there. There are at least six factors that are necessary for the most proficiently functioning project manager. First, is maturity. The project manager needs to have at least five to seven years of successful business experience. Successful does not mean he or she has never failed or made mistakes on the project. It simply means the individual has more success stories than failures. Second, use of tactics. Project managers should not only manage but lead. Leaders set a good example for their employees and in this case the project manager should do the same. He or she should show drive and sense of responsibility. When the team members can see the project manager is passionate about the project they will be as well (Koppala, 2010).


Third, is availability. It is unwise to hire or consider hiring a project manager with several projects on his or her plate. It is a proven fact that plans don't always go as planned. In other words the project manager may be schedule to begin work on the current project Monday but the previous project for another company won't be completed for another two months. Only chose those project managers who have a three to six month window. Fourth, technical expertise. All projects no matter their type will require some form of technical intervention. It is wise for the project manager to be intermediate to proficient in this category. This saves time and money trying to track down a tech person to work with the team during the project.


Fifth, customer orientation. The project manager must be a people person. Specifically he or she must be able to speak with the upper level managers and discover exactly what they want. The client or customer will require open communication and updates on the project as well as feedback on what is and is not working. The project manager must be able to handle these requirements and convey the information in a concise manner. Sixth, the project manager must have experience both inside and outside the company. The resources for the project may not all be in house which means outsourcing. Project manager needs to be familiar with the parent company and any other resource companies to help complete the task. Lack of knowledge and experience can be costly, result in delays or even cause the project to fail (Wes, 2010).


Koppala, G. (2010 November 26). Selecting the wrong project manager for Projects from POME. Retrieved from http://www.bsonet.org/selecting-the-wrong-project-manager-for-projects-from-pome-by-gautam-koppala/


Wes. (2010 September 23). 10 common mistakes that young or inexperienced project managers make. Retrieved from http://project-management.truesolutions.com/2010/09/23/10-common-mistakes-that-young-or-inexperienced-project-managers-make/


4. Describe approaches and techniques for developing and training project managers.


The essence of project management is to bring together all the needed components to complete the project successfully. Upper level management usually has a plan and from that plan seeks out an individual with the qualifications to handle the position. Sometimes whoever the person they are looking for does not exist or may be out of their price range. In this particular case a project manager would need to be developed and trained. The first step is to identify an individual with leadership experience, management experience or a combination of both. The number of years this individual has had the experience is also important, the minimum should be five to seven years. Leaders provide examples for their followers such as determination and enthusiasm. Whichever qualities are lacking this individuals will need training to obtain them (Changingminds.org, 2011).


The second step is teaching resource management. The project manager needs to know the best possible resources for the situation such as personnel, money, time lines, etc. This would require a project management seminar. The company can either hold the seminar in house or send the individual to a currently scheduled seminar. In house seminars will be specifically based on what the company needs while the outside seminar will teach the general requirements for all project managers. Money, time and resource allocation are factors in this decision (AMAnet.org, 2011) .


AMAnet.org. (2011). Project Management Seminars. Retrieved from http://www.amanet.org/training/seminars/Project-Management-training.aspx


Changingminds.org. (2011). Leadership vs. Management. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/articles/manager_leader.htm


5. What ethical issues are common during the selection of project personnel?


In the business world upper level management have many issues to worry about. These issues include: market downturn, product defects and sabotage. When hiring a new employee into the company upper level management must consider several business ethical points. Business ethics are similar to regular ethics except they are focused on the moral acts of business professionals (Harpreet, 2011). The first business ethic to consider is integrity, what is the new project personnel known for in the business world. When contacting previous employers the responses could range from encouraged the team the entire project or manipulated the team so only he or she looked good. Trust is an important factor within the team and also within the company (Dalton & Wimbus, 2011). If you can't trust your employees to do their jobs correctly than you can't expect success?


The second business ethic is loyalty. It is important for the project personnel to be dedicated to the success of the business. There can not be any split loyalties. In those cases if the current company does not perform the way the project personnel expected they could leave in the middle of the project. The third business ethic is respect. The project personnel must show respect for each other, the project manager and the upper level management. They must also show respect to the other employees within the company who are not part of the group.


Dalton, D.R. and Wimbush, J.C. (2011). Integrity Testing Through An Alternative Lens: A One Act Play. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/tipapr96/dalton.aspx


Harpreet. (2011). What are Business Ethics? Retrieved from http://www.trivology.com/articles/493/what-are-business-ethics.html




--Discussion Question:





What skills do project managers need now that they did not need in the past? What skills do you think project managers will need in the next 50 years that they do not have now? Why?


The creation of the Internet has caused the business world to change. The barriers between countries has been removed so now we have a global economy. The employee market has vastly increased and so has the competition. Companies are no longer restricted to the individuals who live in their own countries but now they can access the best workers from anywhere in the world. In the past project managers did not have this factor to deal with. Their project teams were based within the company that originated the project. Any outside personnel was flown in for the project, remained for the duration of the project and was then flown back to his or her place of origin. Projects are now completed by virtual groups. Some or all of the members could be located in different places. This doesn't necessarily mean in other countries it can also mean other parts of the nation. The more the project manager knows about the technology the easier it will be to chose the best possible equipment and programs to use for the job.


Project managers will need technical skills specifically concerning virtual communications, information protection and virtual group coordination. Not all group members may be able to meet at the same time, so the project manager needs to coordinate the means to get the information to the right individuals. In 50 years the guess word of picking the best team to complete project will be over. Computer programs and databases are being created with the ability to check backgrounds, screen potential applicants for certain positions. The project manager needs to develop some exposure to psychology courses. The computer may pick out the candidates but no machine can determine the psychology issues the individual may possess. This is not about diagnosis but rather catching the traits that might make the candidate unsuitable for the virtual work team. Humans can be unpredictable and this factor can catch computer off guard. A person may be able to spot what a computer can't.

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Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.
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Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hi chris,
how is the progress for the next set of questions coming along?
Also, let me know if you are able to finish up early on these questions.
I need more help with another course coming up soon. Let me know your availability.
Thanks
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

I can complete the questions either by Wed or Thursday. If you need help with another project simply let me know and I'll take a look at it. I hope you had a good Christmas and the New Year is shaping up nicely for you.

Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.

1. Using the project life cycle develop a matrix showing when various sources of conflict occur.

Conflict is defined as a struggle. The struggle can either be internal or it can be external. The different categories of struggle include: man vs man, man vs society, man vs nature and man vs self (Slideshare.net, 2011). It is clear that majority of the conflicts are external in nature, an outside force attempting to impose itself on the individual. Conflicts can be healthy because they expose our weaknesses and help us focus on the areas that require improvement. In the business realm conflict takes on a different meaning. Conflict in business can refer to the battles a company faces in start-up and continuation as well as the formation of a project. Every company in existence went through the life cycle and in every phase there is potential for conflict.


The first stage is initiation the scope and approach of the project are defined. The conflict in this situation is external. Man vs Man the individuals meeting to create the plan for the project may disagree on how the project should be run, how the project manager should be chosen and how long the project should run. The second stage is planning. Every task associated with the project is assigned, risks are analyzed and milestones are reviewed. The conflicts are external, Man vs Man, Man vs Society and Man vs Nature. Obviously, a group of individuals coming together to make crucial decisions will have their disagreements. Society and nature are two additional elements. Society is related to the attitudes and desires of the consumers and nature is the environment in which the supplies for the project will be acquired.


The third stage is execution and controlling, during this phase the plans are set in motion. Testing takes place and reviews are written. The conflict in this case is external Man vs Society and Man vs Nature. Again we are looking at how consumer have reacted to the product or service. If the reaction was favorable the problem could be not enough of the product or service to meet demand? It could also be the opposite consumer didn't like the product or service so the project itself failed. This means completely starting over. Nature could once again interfere with the needed materials and cause setbacks. The final stage or closure is the proper completion of the project. This means all the requirements have been met, the team has been rewarded and the lessons for the project have been noted/placed under review. Conflicts in this case are Man vs Man, Man vs Self.


The members of the team may want to renegotiation the terms of their contract and the men conducting the review may have internal turmoil about how they could have made different plans.


Slideshare.net. (2011) Conflict: The Different Kinds. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/mpowell4/basic-types-of-conflict


Visitask.com. (2011). Project Life Cycle - Project cycle management. Retrieved from http://www.visitask.com/project-life-cycle.asp


2. Determine the best conflict resolution mode for each of the following situations:

- Two of your functional team members appear to have personality clashes and almost always assume opposite points of view during decision-making. This situation requires compromise, if both parties lock up on every decision-making event then nothing gets done. This causes delays that the company can't afford.

- R&D quality control and manufacturing operations quality control continually argue as to who should perform testing on an R&D project. R&D postulates that it is its project, and manufacturing argues that it will eventually go into production and that their staff wishes to be involved as early as possible. This situation requires collaboration, both parties are going to handle the product so both should work together in order to make the sure the product functions at it's highest potential.

- Two functional department managers continually argue as to who should perform a certain test. You know that this situation exists, and that the department managers are trying to work it out themselves, often with great pain. However you are not sure that they will be able to resolve the problem themselves. This situation also requires the collaboration technique because the test is a continuous source of argument between the two parties. Soboth functional department managers should take turns giving the test.


It has been determined that conflict is necessary for growth and without it stagnation would set in. This is considered to be the positive side of conflict, forcing change to occur for the betterment of the species. There is also negative conflict which is a struggle that hinders growth, lengthens setbacks and costs additional amounts of money. The situations listed above are examples of negative conflict causing more problems than solutions. Each example is external Man vs Man (Slideshare.net, 2011). There are five ways to address a conflict: collaborating, competing, avoiding, harmonizing and compromising.


Collaborating refers to two or more parties of equal interests that are vining for a position or opportunity. In this case the parties can come together in a series of stages to take full advantage of the situation. This is most useful when two or more parties are handling the same project or product and they both want an equal chance to review it. Competing takes the authoritarian approach which means one side expresses themselves and the other side remains silent. Most effectively used when their are unresolvable personal conflicts. Avoiding is associated with non-confrontational solutions that involve passive behaviors of withdrawal or moving away to prevent harmful results (Lifehack.org).


Harmonizing is based on returning to the root foundation the original relationship prior to the conflict. This means that one side may give in to the other side. The situations of surprise attack and outmatching require this technique. Compromising this technique focuses on the middle ground of the situation, a negotiation between the parties. Both sides end up giving up something in order to work out the situation. There are concessions which are substitutions for the things that neither party was able to obtain (Lifehack.org).


Lifehack.org. Five Types of Conflict Management. Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifehack/five-types-of-conflict-management.html


Slideshare.net. (2011) Conflict: The Different Kinds. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/mpowell4/basic-types-of-conflict


3. Describe the communications process in place on your project or in your organization.


The communication process consists of all steps necessary for the sender to get the message to the receiver. It typically looks like sender, message, environment, message, receiver and feedback. The sender takes information which meant for the receiver and it goes through an environment which may produce some barriers to communication. The message gets to the receiver, comprehension takes place and then the receiver gives feedback to the sender. The feedback initially let's the sender know if his or her message was successfully understood. This is the basic way that information travels for one party to another (Sanchez).


Another way to identify the communication process is the type of approach that is used: top down or a combination of bottom up and side to side. The top down approach is simple and strict, upper level management assigns tasks and relays instructions. The communication is one way only (Leadingcreatives.com, 2008). Bottom up and side to side infer that communication is coming from the employees to the upper managers and it is also distributed between departments. This second type of communication allows more freedom and communication is more widely delivered. The best way for my organization to function would be the second form of communication: bottom up and side to side.


Leadingcreatives.com. (2008 October 27). Top-Down Communication. Retrieved from http://www.leadingcreatives.com/2008/10/top-down-communication.html


Sanchez, N. Communication Process. Retrieved from http://web.njit.edu/~lipuma/352comproc/comproc.htm


4. From your own experience, provide an example requiring conflict management. Discuss how the incident was handled, what the results were, and what might have been done to improve the situation.


Conflict management is the process of systematic steps that resolve a conflict and hopefully prevent it from happening again. This process is applied to those situations that are based on negative conflict situations. I once walked in call center that was associated with Sprint. Sprint would outsource work to the call center. I had entered a training program with 10 other entry level candidates. Rebbecca was one of those people that thinks everyone owes her and should listen to everything she has to say. We both went through the training program at the same time. I worked really hard and got high marks, while she made fairly low marks but was well known by the managers in the call center.


As we were released to the floor in order to take calls things went okay at first. I worked really hard and received several high marks and awards. Rebbecca didn't get anything. As time progressed we began to have problems with each other, she would complain to the managers about me using unauthorized business practices to make sales and to gain new customers. At first I ignored her but after two straight months I began to complain about her long breaks, leaving early to go home and getting other agents to cover for her. A formal review was performed on both Rebbecca and I. During this time neither of us was allowed to work on the phones, the whole matter took almost three months (Thomas).


At the end of the review Rebbecca was placed back in the training course instead of being fired because she knew the managers. I was allowed to return to my position on the floor. The situation would have been much better if Rebbecca had been fired. Her attitude was not compatible with the job position. She was not a team player and didn't want to work but have things handed to her. This was a clear sign of avoidance conflict management (Lifehack.org).


Lifehack.org. Five Types of Conflict Management. Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifehack/five-types-of-conflict-management.html


Thomas, K. Conflict Management Definition of Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.dcswift.com/military/classes/Mentoring/Conflict_Management.pdf


5. List the types of communication in use on your projects. For each communication type determine the following:

- The intent of the communication

- The recipient(s) of the communication and their needs/expectations

- The mode of communication

- The expected results of the communication

- How the communication is documented

- Your recommendations for improving the communication


The art of conveying information from one person to another has many types: verbal, nonverbal, formal and, informal language. Verbal communication is physically talking with another person. This type of communication is meant to be face to face which makes the meaning more personal. The recipients would be office staff and those within the project. These individuals expect to be informed of their duties within the company/project and how things are progressing. The mode implied is group meeting or one on one meetings. The results are immediate feedback in order to establish comprehension among the project members. The communication can be documented by a follow up memo, there are no recommendations at this time.


Nonverbal communication uses facial expressions and body language to convey the message. This also include sign language because no words are used. This type of communication is used when the parties are not able to meet face to face. The recipients may be out of the office but still need to be informed of their duties and how the project is going. The mode of transmission can be memos and e-mails. The expectations are delayed responses to the information and increased chance of misunderstandings. The communication is pre-documented because it's written or typed material. Using correct font, words and adhering to nonverbal etiquette can improve communications (Buffalostate.edu).


Formal communication involves a set chain of command that is followed for the message to reach its destination. This type of communication is used in top down business settings when instructions come from the upper management to the employees. The needs of the employees are to understand the information given and carry out the instructions in a timely manner. The method usually consists of memos and other formal documents. The creation of the documents is the record. Improving this form of communication would be allowing the employees to speak directly with upper management when needed face to face (Allan, 2011).


Informal communication involves face to face dealings and not through letters or other types of correspondence. This type of communication is used in bottom top business which means the employees are able to convey their feelings and concerns with upper level management and they listen to each other. The method of transmission is face to face and the event can be documented through memos. There is no recommendation at this time (Allan, 2011).


Allan, L. (2011 March 12). Formal versus Informal Communication Methods. Retrieved from http://hr.toolbox.com/blogs/people-at-work/formal-versus-informal-communication-methods-44897


Buffalostate.edu. Unit 2 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication. Retrieved from http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/smithrd/UAE%20Communication/Unit2.pdf



--Discussion Question:






Discuss the need for development of a project vocabulary. How would you go about meeting this requirement?


Vocabulary consists of the types of words used by a group of people or an individual to describe the immediate environment. These words are also used to describe how the individual or group interacts with the environment. In business terms vocabulary is described as a series of words used to describe various aspects of the particular business. For instance those in the medical field use words like surgery, embolism, malpractice and residency. These same words would have absolutely no meaning to those in the construction industry. The only word that would successful translate would be malpractice only it would be negligence and lawsuit. When to different types of industries come together there is the potential for communication problems based on the type of vocabulary used by both representatives. The solution to this problem is an industry language translator/interpretor.


The sole purpose of this individual is to translate and interpret the business language of one industry into the business language of another and vice versa. Telecommunications systems management is one area that has embraced this method. Those individuals who study this type of management are taught both technical language as well as business language. When meetings are held this individual reviews the material and waits until questions are asked to explain the parameters in terms that each side can understand. It is important to find out the types of departments that are required for the project and then assign at least one person to study up on the vernacular of these departments. In some cases it may be necessary to outsource from a group that specializes in the interpretation and translation of business languages.

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Hey Chris,

I am expecting the last set of answers tonight.

Thanks
Customer: replied 2 years ago.
The last 5 answers are over due now.
Please respond chris.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.
I'll get them to you tonight. There were some website issues yesterday and wasn't sure when the site would come back up.
Expert:  Chris12 replied 2 years ago.


1.
List and
describe the critical roles of senior/executive management during the life
cycle of the project.


Every project
within a business has a beginning, a middle and an end. This is known as the project life cycle. The beginning stage is known as initiation
where the scope of the project is decided.
There are also discussions about the approach to handling the problem
and how to deliver the desired outcomes (Visitask.com, 2011). Upper level management has the responsibility
of collecting the information needed to make the company a success and thus
conveying that information to the project manager. Basically, letting the project manager know
exactly what is expected from the project and its members. The next stage is planning which involves a detailed
identification and assignment of each task until the project is over. Risk analysis and milestones are also
required (Visitask.com, 2011). During
this stage upper level management reviews that risk analysis and the milestones
making changes to the project parameters as the needs of the company
changes. These changes are conveyed to
the project manager who in turn makes the information available to the project
team.



Execution and
controlling is extremely important because it ensures project activities are
properly executed and controlled. The
established solution is now implemented to solve the problem (Visitask.com,
2011). Upper level management is
responsible for closing examining this stage to make sure that every step is
taken and that the right decision for resolution was made. It's true that the project manager and team
would be the first to receive a reprimand but then the discipline would flow up
stream. Upper level management cannot
afford to implement a solution that will cost more money, waste more time and
ultimately cause more problems. The
conclusion is the final stage of the project, written in a formal project
review (Visitask.com, 2011). Upper level
management reviews this report and determines if future projects are necessary
and if the currently completed project was worthwhile.



McNamara, C. Overview of Role of Chief Executive. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/chiefexecutives/index.htm



Visitask.com.
(2011). Project Life Cycle - Project cycle management. Retrieved from http://www.visitask.com/project-life-cycle.asp





2. Describe how adopting various types of management
structures and initiatives impact project management. Consider the following:

- Concurrent engineering/management

- Total quality management (TQM)

- Empowerment

- Self-directed work teams

- Life-cycle costing





Every company has a set
of rules that outlines the proper conduct and everyday practices of upper level
management down to the employees. The
way the members of a company operate is closely associated with the management
structure. Basically, this is the
established plan concerning management's role/duties and it covers every type
of managerial position. The level of
management is reflected in the plan by setting standards for the managers in
specific positions (ISO.org, 2011). There
are three categories of management structure: organic, middle, and
mechanic. Organic is defined by flexibility,
openness, and lower degrees of formality.
Mechanic is defined by rigid, closed and very formal proceeding -
everything done by the letter. The
middle ground is somewhere between these two ends of the spectrum. Simple
management is associated with small companies and entrepreneurial
companies. Divisional and matrix
management structures are associated with larger companies that possess several
types of products, services, and subsidiaries.
These can be located regionally or internationally (Bombaci).



These types of management are considered rigid: concurrent
engineering/management, total quality management (TQM) and life-cycle
costing. Each form of management requires
accurate and precise measurements. There
is no room for errors and the exchange of information is on a formal
basis. These types of management are
organic: empowerment and self-directed work teams. Management is decentralized which means that
each individual and each team are responsible for completing tasks on time, for
solving problems and for upholding the standards of the company without an
upper level manager telling them all the time.



Bombaci, S.A. Management Structures.
Retrieved from http://www.hkiaat.org/images/uploads/articles/Management.pdf



ISO.org. (2011). Management and leadership standards. Retrieved from http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/management_and_leadership_standards.htm





3.
In a matrix
organization, people are often assigned full-time to a project. What is the
responsibility of the project manager to the assigned resource and to the
manager the resource is "borrowed" from?



The
organization of a company can determine the functionality of the company. Its design helps products and services to be
produced and offered in the most efficient manner possible. One such organization is the matrix. The matrix is
described as the horizontal flow of skills and information. It is most closely associated with managing
large products or how the product is developed.
Employees from different functional disciplines are placed in teams and
they retain their original positions. In
other words it's like outsourcing services and skills from within the company. The reporting process in this type of
structure is daily and the product manager has authority over all sideways
departments involved. The head of the
department is also kept in the loop which is vertical reporting (Businessdictionary.com).



The project
manager is in control of the project team.
He or she has knowledge of how the project should run and who is needed
in order to achieve success. The project
manager gets information from upper level management and shares it with the project
team. The lending manager has the responsibility
of telling the project manager everything that he or she needs to complete the
project at hand. This includes ways to
replenish or replace the resource when used up or damaged (Civil Engineer, 2011).



Businessdictionary.com. Matrix Organization. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/matrix-organization.html



Civil Engineer. (2011 November 18). Project Manager
Responsibilities. Retrieved from http://civilengineerlink.com/project-manager-responsibilities/





4.
What should the
role of the project manager be in the planning endeavors, including strategic
and operational planning, of his or her company?



Projects
are created by upper level management and begin as a need or desire that the
company has. This need or desire is
causing the company to lose money, customers and its power in its perspective
market. The foundation for the project
is to collect a group of individuals headed by a project manager that can
handle the plans set to resolve the problem or opportunity. The majority of the leg work is done by upper
level management that provides an outline for the project. Depending on the knowledge of upper level
management the project can be specific or it could be an outline leaving the
project manager and team to formulate the plan for resolution.



The project manager
will meet with upper level management to either discuss a formal plan of attack
or to confirm the steps in the attack plan.
The strategies employed by the project manager will either be personally
created or shared with upper level management or it will be presented to the
project manager and he or she can add more strategies (Babou, 2008). The activities and budgets needed to complete
the project are associated with the operations of the project. The project manager needs to keep the project
within its budget and also determine the actions needed to get that
accomplished. Again suggests in this
area will come from the project manager for improve or for the creation of
these needed components (Civil Engineer, 2011).



Babou. (2008 February 29). Roles and responsibilities of
a Project Manager. Retrieved from http://leadershipchamps.wordpress.com/2008/02/29/roles-and-responsibilities-of-a-project-manager/



Civil Engineer. (2011 November 18). Project Manager
Responsibilities. Retrieved from http://civilengineerlink.com/project-manager-responsibilities/





5.
Some executives would prefer to have their project managers become
tunnel-vision workaholics, falling in love with their jobs and living to work
instead of working to live. How do you feel about this?



Obsession can be
dangerous associated with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Basically, everybody needs something. From living space to social acceptance, when
these needs are not met the individual experiences a void. This gaping hole continues to grow until the
individual is driven uncontrollably to fulfill this need and become
satisfied. The dangerous part is that
the individual will do whatever is necessary to achieve satisfaction. It's very similar to a drug addict that requires
his next fix. The consequences are not
even considered until after the fact and depending on the individual's state of
mind, maybe not even then.



A regular project
manager would be found on level four which is esteem needs including
achievement, status, responsibility and reputation. The project manager wants to do the best
possible job to receive positive marks on all the above mentioned areas. A workaholic project manager is found on
levels one (biological and physiological needs) and three (belongingness and
love needs). Even overachiever wants to
belong and be praised for their contributions, also when you work you provide
for your basic needs. The more you work
the more you have for those basic needs (Businessball.com, 2010).



Workaholic experience large amounts of stress which can lead to health
problems such as memory loss, moodiness and hypertension (Griffin). The work itself will always be there in some
way shape or form, however, an individual's health will not always be
optimal. It is neither healthy nor wise
to become a workaholic.



Businessballs.com. (2010). Maslow's Hierarchy of
Needs. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm



Griffin, R.M. 10
Health Problems Related to Stress That You Can Fix. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/features/10-fixable-stress-related-health-problems

Customer: replied 2 years ago.
Chris,
I have posted some more questions last night.
I will appreciate if you can help me the responses as soon as possible.
Let me know.

Thanks

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